GARCH models based on Brownian Inverse Gaussian innovation processes
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In classic GARCH models for financial returns the innovations are usually assumed to be normally distributed. However, it is generally accepted that a non-normal innovation distribution is needed in order to account for the heavier tails often encountered in financial returns. Since the structure of the normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) distribution makes it an attractive alternative innovation distribution for this purpose, we extend the normal GARCH model by assuming that the innovations are NIG-distributed. We use the normal variance mixture interpretation of the NIG distribution to show that a NIG innovation may be interpreted as a normal innovation coupled with a multiplicative random impact factor adjustment of the ordinary GARCH volatility. We relate this new volatility estimate to realised volatility and suggest that the random impact factors are due to a news noise process influencing the underlying returns process. This GARCH model with NIG-distributed innovations leads to more accurate parameter estimates than the normal GARCH model. In order to obtain even more accurate parameter estimates, and since we expect an information gain if we use more data, we further extend the model to cater for high, low and close data, as well as full intraday data, instead of only daily returns. This is achieved by introducing the Brownian inverse Gaussian (BIG) process, which follows naturally from the unit inverse Gaussian distribution and standard Brownian motion. Fitting these models to empirical data, we find that the accuracy of the model fit increases as we move from the models assuming normally distributed innovations and allowing for only daily data to those assuming underlying BIG processes and allowing for full intraday data. However, we do encounter one problematic result, namely that there is empirical evidence of time dependence in the random impact factors. This means that the news noise processes, which we assumed to be independent over time, are indeed time dependent, as can actually be expected. In order to cater for this time dependence, we extend the model still further by allowing for autocorrelation in the random impact factors. The increased complexity that this extension introduces means that we can no longer rely on standard Maximum Likelihood methods, but have to turn to Simulated Maximum Likelihood methods, in conjunction with Efficient Importance Sampling and the Control Variate variance reduction technique, in order to obtain an approximation to the likelihood function and the parameter estimates. We find that this time dependent model assuming an underlying BIG process and catering for full intraday data fits generated data and empirical data very well, as long as enough intraday data is available.