The antecedents and outcomes of work-family enrichment among female workers
The roles of females have changed significantly over the past years as females increasingly are entering the labour market in South Africa. This resulted in females having to fulfil multiple roles simultaneously, for example being mother, wife and employee. Therefore the statement can be made that females have a work life and a family life to contend with. This can be enriching, seeing that these domains can generate experiences and resources, which females can use in other domains to enhance the quality. The general objective of this study was to explore various relationships that females experience between work resources, home resources, work engagement, family engagement and work-family enrichment. A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study. A combined purposive and convenience non-probability sample of female workers (N = 420) was taken across the spectrum of several industries in South Africa. Measuring instruments were used for biographical characteristics, work resources (self-developed), home resources (self-developed), work-family enrichment (MACE Work-Family Enrichment Instrument), work engagement (Utrecht Engagement Scale) and family engagement (adapted Utrecht Work Engagement Scale). Omegas and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were used to determine the reliability of the findings, while correlations were employed to identify significant relationships between the constructs. The dual work-family enrichment models and the mediating effect of the various dimensions of work-to-family enrichment, as well as family-to-work enrichment, were also tested by the Mplus statistical programme. Two models in which work-family enrichment and family-work enrichment act as mediators were also tested. The results indicated a positive statistical significant relationship between work resources, and work-family enrichment; also between home resources, and family-work enrichment; and between work-family enrichment and work engagement. However, a very small, but statistical significant, relationship was shown to exist between family-work enrichment and family engagement. Work-family enrichment also mediated the relationship, with a large effect, between work resources, with work engagement as outcome and family-work enrichment mediated the relationship, with a small effect, between home resources, with family engagement as outcome. Recommendations were made for organisations to follow up and for future research on the topic.
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