Social entrepreneurial development in the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality
Moshiga, Selele Diamond
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Social entrepreneurship is a fairly new subject to most academics. Extensive research and analysis is currently underway to understand this subject better. By definition, it still lends itself to the general known description of commercial entrepreneurship. What makes it distinctive is its virtuousness of the mission to create better social value than commercial profit. For social entrepreneurs, the social mission is explicit and central. This obviously affects how social entrepreneurs perceive and assess opportunities. Mission-related impact becomes the central criterion, not wealth creation. Wealth is just a means to an end for social entrepreneurs. This study investigates the overall view of social entrepreneurship and puts together a working definition of social entrepreneurship in the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. This study's primary objective focuses on determining the sustainability of social entrepreneurship and its potential to contribute meaningfully to the overall economy. The secondary objective of the study is to find a working definition of social entrepreneurship as proposed by other researchers throughout the world and assess some of the work done around the subject. The research methodology consists of literature study and empirical research that in turn encompass administering a survey questionnaire to various social entrepreneurs in the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. The literature study focuses on worldwide definitions, approaches, activities, funding mechanisms, skill requirements and challenges around the subject of social entrepreneurship. The literature study also finds a detailed study of Ashoka, one of the most successful social entrepreneurship initiatives from the United Kingdom, which is perceived as one of the most successful projects on this subject. The empirical research cover the construction of a survey questionnaire aimed at understanding five key areas around social entrepreneurship in Tshwane. These areas covers sets of questions to gather a better understanding of the demographic profile of a social entrepreneur, the demographic profile of their organisations (specifically non-profit organisations), how they generate their income, raise funds and the source of this funding, challenges they face in the city and last but not least, gather the thoughts of these entrepreneurs in terms of what can be done to make it successful. The questionnaire comprises of both open-closed ended questions. The results of the findings, which include an overall demographic profile of the social entrepreneur, showed a significant potential for social entrepreneurship to prosper in the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality and the need for further research and investigation on this subject. The results also show the need for higher level of skills and qualifications for social entrepreneurs to grow beyond the initial incubation stage in their organisations. Other findings from the results include relevance of location for social entrepreneurship to prosper. The finding also revealed the need for increased access to funding and better policy framework to help entrepreneurs to operate harmoniously. Crime and inadequate regulatory framework poses some of the biggest threats to social entrepreneurship. A number of practical recommendations have been listed in the study for authorities to consider, in an attempt to make this subject a meaningful solution to solve some of the socio-economic problems in Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. It is the author's belief that the objectives of the study have been met, despite the bias of the geographic location and possibly a smaller sample size than expected nevertheless provide a sound base for continuity on the subject.