Motoriese ontwikkelingstatus, aandagafleibaarheid-hiperaktiwiteitsindroom (ADHD) en leerverwante probleme by 6- en 7-jarige kinders in Potchefstroom
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Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) find academic and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills more difficult than their peers. According to research, children classified as learning disabled often show signs of one or more syndromes of developmental disorders rather than an isolated, discrete disability. The more common learning disorders include disabilities related to verbal communication development, reading disorders, gross and fine motor dysfunction and motor hyperactivity. Attention disorders, including or excluding hyperactivity, are not considered learning disabilities in themselves. However, because attention problems can gravely interfere with school performance, they are often associated with problems concerning academic skills Literature further reveals that boys are more inclined to motor problems, learning disabilities and ADHD, compared to girls. With regards to racial diversity, limited information is available, even though some literature implies that certain racial diversities differ to some extent regarding motor problems (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between DCD, learning disabilities and ADHD of children (N = 99) in the age group 6 to 7 years in Potchefstroom in the NW province. A second purpose was to examine the differences between gender and certain racial groups in the age group 6 to 7years in Potchefstroom with regards to to DCD, learning disabilities and ADHD. Two grade one classes were randomly selected from three selected schools in the Potchefstroom district proportionally representing the different racial groups [white (n = 37), black (n = 50), Coloured (n = 12)]. In this group, 48 boys and 53 girls were evaluated with the Movement ABC (MABC) (Henderson & Sugden, 1992), the Aptitude test for school beginners (ASB) (Swart et a/., 1994), the Modified Conner's abbreviated teacher and the Taylor Hyperactivity checklist (Lowenberg & Lucas, 1999). The Statistics for Windows computer package was used for analyzing the data. The group of children without DCD showed a statistically significant higher total ASB scores than the DCD group (p ≤ 0.00). A multiple regression analysis showed a statistically significant interaction between DCD, learning disabilities and ADHD which varied between 22% and 36%. Analysis of differences in the ASB of boys and girls with and without DCD showed no significant interactions, although racial interactions (p < 0.001) were found with the DCD group (p < 0.025). Boys with DCD did not perform as well as the girls in the coordination subtest, and their ADHD totals indicate more symptoms than those of the girls. Black children's numerical skills, verbal communication and the ASB total appeared to be considerably lower than the values of the white children. Overall, the conclusion can be made that DCD has an effect on 6 to 7-year old children's learning abilities and to a lesser extent on their ADHD status.
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