Visitor segmentation of arts festivals : a comparative study of three events
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The purpose of this study was to identify tourist profiles as a segmentation variable for three festivals (Innibos, Oppikoppi and Volksblad). Numerous segmentation studies have been done in the past; however, few were done where profiles were used as variables for segmentation of arts festivals. Market segmentation is the way in which tourism companies divide a market into smaller, more clearly defined groups that share similar needs, wants, and characteristics. Segmentation is important in order for a destination to target the right kind of visitor. Other reasons for doing this type of research is to increase the number of new tourist arrivals; to increase the length of stay of tourists; the amount of tourist expenditure per visitor stay and to broaden the activities and shows that are offered. Research for this study was undertaken at three festivals. These festivals are Innibos, Volksblad and Oppikoppi respectively. Questionnaires were distributed randomly during the course of the festivals. Data collection was done by field workers who distributed questionnaires to the attendants of the festivals. At each of the three festivals questionnaires were interviewer administered and the "recall method" was used, where respondents had lo recall their spending. It was also a destination-based survey, where interviews were held on-site during the event. Different sites were chosen to limit response bias towards a certain group of festival attendants. The questionnaires were distributed throughout the course of the three festivals respectively. The data was used to compile graphs and tables so that a profile of each festival can be designed. Correlations between the three festivals and their profiles were made. In this case the effect size is given by w= √(x2/n), where x2 is the usual Chi-square statistic for the contingency table and n is the sample size. In the special case of a 2x2 table, the effect size (w) is given by phi (Φ) coefficient. Note that the effect size is again independent of sample size. Oppikoppi has an average of 10 000 attendants, lnnibos and Volksblad have an average of approximately 30 000 attendants per year. The sample size of 400 questionnaires for Volksblad and 400 questionnaires for lnnibos was anticipated and 200 for Oppikoppi. The variables that were the focus point of this study were gender, occupation, language, province where the attendants reside, travel group size and number of days at festival. This information can contribute to better marketing and more targeted markets for a larger number of attendants. The organiser can determine what type of entertainment, music, song and dance can be packaged and marketed as a unique product. The research indicated that organisers from Volksblad and lnnibos can focus more on family entertainment that is suitable for the whole family. Oppikoppi is a rock festival and therefore the organisers can get more rock bands, especially Afrikaans rock. All three festivals are for Afrikaans speaking people so they can use Afrikaans magazines and newspapers as well as Afrikaans radio stations to market these festivals in the province of deliverance as well as bordering provinces. The study contributes to the information of the larger festivals that already exists like Aardklop, Grahamstown and KKNK.