|dc.description.abstract||Not much has been written about the relationship between the ANC and the PAC in the
liberation struggle of South Africa, especially during their exiled period. Consequently,
there is a missing link in our understanding of the history of the liberation struggle in
South Africa between 1960 and 1990. Moreover, the tendency has been to write only
about the history of the ANC as if it is the only liberation movement that has played the
most important role in the history of South Africa in the struggle for freedom by the
oppressed. The inclination of many historians and writers has been to write more about
the ANC and very little about other liberation movements such as the PAC. As would be
expected, this tendency has reinforced the conception that the ANC is the only liberation
movement that has played a major role in the liberation struggle of South Africa. In
trying to reconstruct the history of the liberation movements by filling in the missing gaps,
an attempt is made to indicate how the struggle for freedom affected the relationship
between the ANC and the PAC.
The thesis traces the events within the ANC which led to the split in 1959 between the
supporters of inclusive nationalism (Charterists) and narrow nationalism (Africanists).
The split happened at the time when there was an unprecedented repression and
brutality on the side of the regime. Instead of burying their differences and joining forces
against the intransigent regime, the irreconcilable differences between the ANC and the
PAC made co-operation between them impossible. This lack of co-operation between
these movements displayed itself in their exiled life. The thesis discusses the attempts
of the ANC and the PAC to launch the armed struggle, seek foreign help and isolate the
regime internationally. It proceeds to examine the reasons why the liberation
movements failed to co-operate and how this lack of co-operation affected their
The thesis also highlights the fact that even though the ANC had problems, it was able
to overcome them and concentrate on the aims of prosecuting the struggle. This
achievement could be attributed to their effective and visionary leadership, especially the
role played by Oliver Tambo as a unifying factor during the exiled life of the movement.
On the other hand, the PAC lacked a sound organisational foundation and this
manifested itself in the policies which lacked clarity. As a result, friction and internal wrangles resulted. This turbulence could be attributed to lack of visionary leadership.
Leballo's presidency, which was characterised by internal fights, subterfuge and mutual
suspicion, made it difficult for his successors to correct the damage immediately. As a
result, the PAC was largely handicapped by these internal problems to the extent that it
was unable to contribute to the liberation struggle like the ANC.
In all the chapters, the unifying theme or golden thread is that the ANC and the PAC
competed for supremacy in the political history of the oppressed in South Africa. The
relationship between them manifested itself in negative actions like competition, hostility
and recriminations. In their struggle against the apartheid regime in South Africa, the
thesis concludes that the ANC contributed more than the PAC.||