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dc.contributor.advisorGouws, L.A.
dc.contributor.authorDu Plessis, Wynand Frederick
dc.date.accessioned2008-11-28T11:48:47Z
dc.date.available2008-11-28T11:48:47Z
dc.date.issued1982
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10394/134
dc.descriptionThesis (DPhil)--PU for CHE, 1983.
dc.description.abstractAt present the problem of anxiety seems to be less prominent than during previous decades, which had specifically been characterized as the "era of anxiety". The increased consumption of narcotics, the vast number of publications regarding anxiety as well as the necessity of change in the South African society - implying change in traditional security-providing structures and thus causing uncertainty - underline the fact that the problem of anxiety can in fact not be seen as being less prominent on a national or international level. Where, on the one hand, the period of youth provides special challenges to young people, it also represents potential for the experience of anxiety, since it implies developmental tasks, which may lead to conflict and with further intensification, to the experience of anxiety. Against this background the present study was primarily an endeavour to investigate possible differences between a population of anxious and a random sample of non-anxious female first-year students Secondly the study involved an applied therapeutic investigation to evaluate the efficiency of an anxiety-reduction program carried out on a sample of anxious students and a stimulation programme with a sample of non-anxious subjects, both by means of audio-psycho-phonological training. Firstly the prominence of the phenomenon of anxiety as it manifests itself in the fields of theology, philosophy, literature and psychology, was outlined briefly. Next, various definitions of anxiety were discussed. It was concluded that at present a universally acceptable definition of anxiety could not be provided, due to its multi-dimensional nature. Then the etymology of anxiety was explored It transpired that the concept of anxiety was fundamentally rooted in aspects pertaining to conflict-threat-potential and renewal. 6.2 SURVEY OF THE LITERA 6.2 SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE (CHAPTER I) Subsequently anxiety was discussed in terms of related phenomena, such as fear, depression, guilt, tension and stress, meaningfulness, development of personality and faith. As an outcrop of the discussion the neurophysiology and the biochemistry of anxiety were also briefly scanned. From this it became clear that anxiety is a complex combination of different emotions and that its manifestation and adapt at ion both on the neurophysiological and biochemical level, cannot be conceived in simple terms. Anxiety was found to be characterized by both ergotrohic-sympathetic adrenocortical activity, and trophotropic-parasympathetic adrenomedullary activity. Should both these antagonistic systems discharge simultaneously, it should be seen as indicative of a breakdown of their normal reciprocal relations. The latter situation could create the possibility for an increased proneness to maladaptive behaviour. Next the problem of anxiety was analyzed in terms of recent therapeutic approaches. In the survey of the main approaches the psyochoanalytic, behavioral,existent ial-humanistic and audio-psychophonological approaches were included, the latter, due to the fact of being relatively new and thus unknown. Each approach was discussed in terms of its theoretical and therapeutic methods and was evaluated in terms of its underlying view of man. Regarding the psychoanalytic approach a short survey of the classical psychoanalytical approach was given; subsequently the more recent, still relevant views of anxiety as presented by Rank, Horney, Sullivan and from were outlined. The discussion was then focussed on the separation anxiety theory and therapy of Mann, whose approach might be regarded as a contemporary psychoanalytic-oriented approach to the problem of anxiety. The behavioral approach was discussed in terms of the main assumptions regarding the etiology of anxiety. The following therapeutic approaches from a behavioral view were then discussed: relaxation methods and systematic desensitization, assertiveness training, cognitive approaches and self-control techniques. The evaluation on principal grounds emphasized the value of an active, symptom-directed approach, but also cautioned that the philosophical view underlying the behavioral approaches did not permit optimal utilization of the potential of anxiety. Next the existential-humanistic approach was discussed, with reference to three main points of departure regarding anxiety, viz. anxiety as a consequence of the human condition, anxiety as a threat to core values of the individual and anxiety as the experience of meaninglessness. Subsequently, the therapeutic approaches hailing from these points of departure were discussed, viz. those of Bugental, May and Frankl. Evaluation of the above-mentioned approaches emphasized the constructive potential of these approaches, but also indicated that the existential-humanistic approach, when viewed from a Christian perspective, is hampered by its secular view of man, particularly regarding there a peutic practice. In connection with audio-psycho-phonology (APP) an outline was given of the causes of anxiety (including causes of a prenatal level). The role of auditory perception in relation to the problem of anxiety was also emphasized. Next, an outline of audio-psycho-phonological training as it is applied to the problem of anxiety was discussed. The three phases constituting the process viz. the phase of filtered sounds, the phase of sound birth and the phase of audio-vocal training were discussed. In view of the unfamiliarity of this approach, possible points of convergence between APP and existing approaches were delined ed . In the evaluation of this approach, its Christian view of man was outlined. However, it was also pointed out that extensive research was needed in order to place many speculative aspects on a sounder scientific basis. In conclusion it was stated that the different approaches manifested important points of convergence in co-existence with many divergent trends. 6.3 METHOD OF STUDY (CHAPTER 11) in this chapter a survey was given of the procedure with reference to the psychometric investigation. Selection of subjects: the population from which the subjects were drawn consisted of female first year students studying for a degree. A total of 424 students from various faculties were assessed by means of two standardized anxiety scales, eg. the IPA Tanxiety scale and the Reactions to Everyday Situations (RES). From these subjects , a population of anxious subjects and a random sample of non-anxious subjects were identified. The anxious subjects each achieved as ten score of 7 or higher on both anxiety scales. The non-anxious subjects were randomly drawn from an identified group of 76, who had all achieved a sten score of 4 or lower, on both anxiety scales. Psychometric assessment: this process was carried out in three phases: Phase one concurred with the mass evaluation involving all first year students. Amongst other psychological tests, the subjects completed the Personal, Home, Social and Formal Relations Questionnaire as well as a biographical questionnaire. Since the results of these two questionnaires were incorporated in the present study, the occasion of the mass evaluation could be viewed as representing the initial phase of assessment. The second phase constituted the evaluation of the 424 subjects, by means of the two anxiety questionnaires, which led to the identification of the anxious and the non-anxious group, both consisting of 40 subjects. The third phase consisted of the individual assessment of the total of 80 subjects. After contact had been established with each of these subjects, they were met individually, and after a collaboration relationship had been established the following battery of psychological tests was completed: the Tree Test of Bolander, the shortened version of the Beck depression inventory, the STAI-anxiety scale, the Purpose in Life Test (PIL), its complementary scale , the Search-for-Noftic-Goals-Test (SONG), the S.A.-Wechsler-intelligence test for adults and the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). A measure of academic performance, based on average performance during the mid-year examination was also acquired for each subject. Since the instruments utilized constituted mainly questionnaires, and alteration of responses could have occurred due to the fact of social desirability, special efforts were made to establish a working relationship based on trust. Confidentiality was also emphasized as well as the willingness to discuss the results once they had been obtained. Many subjects seemingly welcomed the opportunity for self-disclosure and an emotional catharsis resulted in the majority of cases. After the completion of the individual assessment of both groups, the results were computed by means of statistical techniques. The following techniques were incorporated: the chi-square goodness-of-fit-test for independent groups, the z-test for determining the significance of differences for large groups a profile analysis for independent groups and the Wilcoxon paired ranks sign test for small dependent groups (the latter being utilized to compute the results of the applied therapeutic programmes (See 6.6). 6.4 RESULTS PROVIDED BY THE PSYCHOMETRIC INVESTIGATION (CHAPTER 1111 The test results were reported separately as regards each of the testing instruments, in the order in which they had been performed. 6.5 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS OF THE PSYCHOMETRIC INVESTIGATION (CHAPTER IV) The findings of the investigation could be summarized in terms of the following dimensions: firstly global similarities among certain aspects of the two groups emerged. In terms of biographical variables the groups were found to be almost completely similar, since only three of the 25 biographical variables produced significant differences. According to the results on the Tree Test, the groups showed no difference in terms of the occurrence of traumatic incidents, such as illness or the loss of loved ones. Intellectually the groups also functioned on a comparable level. The latter finding might be related to the fact that the groups also did not differ in terms of academic performance. A second, more important dimension, was that the results reflected significant differences in favour of the non-anxious group. From the biographical questionnaire it emerged that the anxious group produced significantly fewer leaders in the area of sport, that they were significantly more doubtful about their academic choices (field of study) and that they manifested a significantly lower level of academic aspiration than the non-anxious group. These few significant differences on the ……………
dc.publisherPotchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education
dc.titleBeangste en nie-beangste eerstejaardamestudente : 'n klinies-psigologiese verkenningen
dc.typeThesisen
dc.description.thesistypeDoctoral


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