Evaluering van 'n maatskaplike groepwerk-bemagtigingsprogram met alkoholafhanklike bejaardes : 'n sterkteperspektief / Lourens Stephanus Geyer
Geyer, Lourens Stephanus
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The overall objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a social group work empowerment programme which is aimed at alcohol dependent elderly people's needs and strengths. The thesis consists of four sections: Section A refers to the problem statement, research objectives and procedures which were followed. Furthermore the limitations of this study, the definition of key words as well as the composition of the research report are discussed. The problem statement can be condensed as follows: o Journals all over the world have been pleading for decades that alcohol dependent clients should be exposed to special developed treatment programmes. Opposed to this, it was found that treatment centres in South Africa use one programme for all their clients, irrespective of age. This entails an unfair and unjust service delivery model. From these findings a need for a specialized treatment programme for alcohol dependant clients was identified. o The strengths perspective has been successfully implemented in various service areas of social work. Unfortunately it has not yet been implemented in a controlled study with alcohol dependent elderly through group work services. The problem statement leads to four research aims. Developmental and Utilization Research (DR & U-model) was used as the overall research model. This model was implemented within a mixed methodological design model. Interviews and experimental research were used as quantitative approaches, although some qualitative data were also reported. A case study, as a qualitative approach, was also used. Literature studies were conducted on the themes of alcoholism, social group work, as well as the strengths perspective. Section B consists of the four articles that form the report about the research outcomes. Each article is a report about a particular sub-project of the research and each has, as a self-contained unit, an own research aim, research method and report. Each of these is linked with the central aim, objectives and content of the umbrella research project. The four articles are: Article 1: Profile of alcohol dependent elderly people A comprehensive profile of alcohol dependent elderly is drafted based on the results of interviews and case studies with 56 aged participants. Various strengths, such as a spouse, of alcohol dependent elderly were identified. On the other hand needs, such as effective communication skills, were also identified. Article 2: The nature and practice of a strengths perspective with alcohol dependent elderly people The history of the strengths perspective is outlined within a South African and international context. From the literature study as well as interviews with the aged participants (N=56) and social work practitioners (N=27) various strengths and qualities group work services with alcohol dependent elderly people. Opposed to this, it was found that although this perspective holds many advantages for the alcohol dependent elderly person, it is presently not practised at registered treatment centres in South Africa that were involved in this investigation. Advantages, disadvantages and principles of this perspective are also discussed. Article 3: A social group work empowerment programme with alcohol dependent elderly people A social group work empowerment programme was developed for alcohol dependent elderly, aimed at their special needs, strengths and challenges. The programme was developed in the spirit of empowerment, a strengths perspective, healing and wholeness, as well as music therapy. Thirteen group meetings, such as communication, conflict management, handling of mild depression, managing of loss, HIV/Aids and the aged person, as well as religion and spirituality in old age, were developed and presented to the client group. Special concerns for group work with the aged, such as to use a loud voice and to speak clearly, were identified from the literature and empirical research, and was taken into account during the programme presentation. Article 4: The effect of a social group work empowerment programme on the social functioning of alcohol dependent elderly people The programme was implemented with eight (N=8) aged participants in an experimental group. Eight (N=8) aged participants was in a comparative group and they received the current group work programme offered by the targeted treatment centre. The shortened Affectometer 2 (Kammann & Nett) and Personal Multi-Screening Inventory (Perspective College) were used as quantitative measuring tools at four occasions with both groups. Added to that, the experimental group completed a self-developed qualitative questionnaire once after intervention. According to the quantitative data neither the empowerment programme, nor the current group work programme improved the social function of the alcohol dependent elderly people The qualitative data showed exactly the opposite findings for the experimental group. In Section C a summary of the findings and conclusions of the full research project is provided. Furthermore some recommendations are provided, followed by a discussion on the contribution of the study. Section D consists of various addenda, such as the interview schedules that were used for data collection purposes. The thesis is concluded with a compound bibliography.
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