Die effek van 'n SAPD krisisontlontingsopleidingsprogram op die psigologiese welstand van toekomstige krisiswerkers
Van Vuren, Elizabeth
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a SAPS crisis-debriefing training program on the future crisis worker. The specific focus was to establish whether the crisis-debriefing training program leads to a decrease in the stress symptoms of the future crisis worker and to an increase in constructive coping strategies and psychological wellbeing. The nature and dynamics of stress, coping and psychological well-being was analysed from certain specific different theoretical perspectives as found in the current literature. in the empirical analysis an experimental group from the North West province (24) as well as an experimental group from the Western Cape (19) were used. The total group consisted out of 43 people who underwent the crisis-debriefing training program. Ages varied from 21 tot 45 years. The total experimental group was compared with a control group (25) that did not undergo the training program. Symptoms of stress were determined by means of the Trauma Constellation Identification Scale (TCIS) by Dansky et al. (l990) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen et al. (1983). Coping strategies were determined by means of the Cope-Questionnaire (COPE) by Carver et al. (1989), the Coping Strategy Indicator (CSI) by Amirkhan (1990, 1994) and the Coping Resources Inventory - Adult Form (CRl) by Moos (1993). Psychological well-being were determined by means of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) by Amonovsky (1987), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener et al. (1985) and the Affectometer 2 (AFM) by Kammann and Flett ( 1983 ). According to the pretest scores with regard to the TCIS and PSS it was clear that the police officials who took pan in this investigation experienced a high level of trauma and stress together with a feeling that they were not always capable of hand ling their circumstances effectively. Pretest scores with regard to the COPE, CSI and CRI showed that the police officials in this investigation, in spite of high scores with regard to Jess adaptational coping mechanisms, predominantly make use of constructive coping mechanisms. According to the pretest scores with regard to the SOC, S\VLS an AFM it was clear that the police officials that took pan in this study, experienced a relatively high level of psychological well-being. After the crisis-debriefing training program the experimental groups showed a statistically meaningful decrease with regard to symptoms of stress. These groups also showedl a statistically meaningful increase in constructive coping abilities and level of psychological well-being after the program. Seeing that the control group did not show a meaningful decrease with regard to stress symptoms and meaningful increases with regard to constructive coping skills and level of psychological well-being, one can assume that the positive changes that occur in the ex peri mental groups can be attributed to the crisis-debriefing training program. it is recommended that those who were trained as crisis workers by means of the crisis-debriefing training program should be followed up to establish whether changes are permanent and whether the program was sufficient preparation for what they are exposed to. Seeing that people in different cultures are trained as crisis workers to work with different cultures, it is recommended that the influence of different cultures with regard to stress, coping and psychological well-being should be investigated and that the findings should be implemented in the crisis-debriefing training program. From this investigation it is obvious that police officials who do administrative work (the control group) experience an even higher level of stress than those who do functional work (experimental groups). Further research with regard to the factors which cause this stress and the possible management of the stress is suggested. From this investigation it was clear that the two experimental groups showed statistically meaningful differences after the crisis-debriefing training program. Seeing that these differences could possibly be ascribed to the different training methods of the program presenters, it is suggested that the program presenters of the North West province and Western Cape should combine their methods and knowledge in order to enrich the program.
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