Vraagstelling as effektiewe onderrigleervaardigheid om leerders se hoërorde-denke in die natuurwetenskappe-leerarea te ontwikkel
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine if questioning can be used as an effective teaching and learning skill to develop learners' higher level thinking in the natural sciences learning area. The types of questions asked by the teachers as well as the different questioning techniques that can be used to provoke the learners' higher level thinking during a learning experience was discussed. The way in which learner questions can be used to encourage student engagement and learning was determine. Questioning as it is used in secondary school was investigated to determine the ways in which it is applied during teaching and learning. The present situation regarding the development and stimulation of learners' questions was determine. The degree to which training and experience determine the teachers application of questioning as an effective teaching and learning skill is investigated by means of a survey. Guidelines to enhance questioning as a skill to develop the learners' higher level thinking was formulated. Method: A literature study was done to investigate the ways in which questioning can be used to enhance the teaching and learning of higher level thinking. Learning strategies, teaching and learning methods and skills to enhance effective higher level thinking was discussed in terms of teaching and learning in the natural sciences. The success rate of teaching and learning can be measure in terms of good questioning and the level of thinking. 'The teaching and learning experience in natural sciences is influenced by the nature of science. The objectives of teaching and learning in the natural sciences is discussed. The empirical data about the grade 8 and grade 11 natural sciences classroom situations was obtained by means of video recordings. These recordings was analysed and coded with a situation analysis instrument developed against the background of the literature study. Empirical research was also undertaken in terms of a survey procedure to obtain the biographical data about the teachers. The empirical data are analysed and discussed in terms of the present situation in use in the natural sciences classrooms. Based on this discussions, guidelines were developed in terms of the proposal of the findings with which to ensure the application of questioning as a teaching and learning skill to enhance the development of learners' higher level thinking in the natural sciences learning area. Core findings: The core findings are, that not enough effort is put to the didactic task of enhancing questioning as an effective teaching and learning skill of learners in the natural sciences. The teachers are confronted with the challenge to make use of spiral questioning to provoke the learners thinking in the classroom situation. Questioning can be used to serve and support the teaching and learning experience. From the empirical data it can be deducted that the teachers in this research group are not trying to enhance, stimulate of provoke learners' questioning. Questioning as practice by the teachers are mostly classified as communication and lower level questions. Furthermore no deduction can be made about the degree to which training and experience determine the teachers application of questioning as an effective teaching and learning skill to enhance the higher level of thinking in the natural sciences learning area. Based on these core findings recommendations are made about the development of higher level thinking to promote deeper understanding of the natural sciences with the aid of questioning as an instructional skill during learning.
- Education 
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