Percutaneous delivery of thalidomide and its N-alkyl analogues for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis / Colleen Goosen
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with high levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) in synovial fluid and synovial tissue (Saxne et al., 1989). Thalidomide is a proven inhibitor of the biological synthesis of TNF-a (Sampaio et al., 1991) and is believed to rely on this action for its suppression of the wasting of tissue which accompanies RA. Oral administration of thalidomide has proven to be effective in RA, but unacceptable side effects are easily provoked (Gutierrez-Rodriguez, 1984). Administration of thalidomide via the dermal route can down-regulate TNF-a production in and around the affected joint, and this without raising the systemic blood level to a problematical level. Based on thalidomide's physicochemical properties, it is unlikely that it can be delivered percutaneously at a dose required for RA. Therefore, we have embraced the idea of using N-alkyl analogues of thalidomide. The most important feature that an analogue of this compound might contribute is decreased crystallinity and increased lipophilicity. Ordinarily both these parameters should favour percutaneous delivery. The current study was primarily aimed at exploring the feasibility of percutaneous delivery of thalidomide and subsequently, three of its odd chain IV-alkyl analogues (methyl, propyl and pentyl) via physicochemical characterization and assessment of their innate abilities to diffuse through skin as an initial step towards developing a topical dosage form for the best compound. The biological activities, more specifically their potential to inhibit the production of TNF-a was determined for thalidomide and its N-alkyl analogues. In order to achieve the objectives, the study was undertaken by synthesizing and determining the physicochemical parameters of thalidomide and its N-alkyl analogues. A high level of crystallinity is expressed in the form of a high melting point and heat of fusion. This limits solubility itself, and thus also sets a limit on mass transfer across the skin. Generally, the greater a drug's innate tendency to dissolve, the more likely it is that the drug can be delivered at an appropriate rate across the skin (Ostrenga et al., 1971). Therefore, the melting points and heats of fusion were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Aqueous solubility and the partition coefficient (relative solubility) are major determinants of a drug's dissolution, distribution and availability. N-octanollwater partition coefficients were determined at pH 6.4. Solubilities in water, a series of n-alcohols and mixed solvents were obtained, as well as the solubility parameters of the compounds in study. Secondly, in vitro permeation studies were performed from these solvents and vehicles using vertical Franz diffusion cells with human epidermal membranes. Thirdly, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) inhibition activities were assessed for thalidomide and its N-alkyl analogues. By adding a methyl group to the thalidomide structure, the melting point drops by over 100°C and, in this particular instance upon increasing the alkyl chain length to five -CH2- units the melting points decrease linearly. Heats of fusion decreased dramatically upon thalidomide's alkylation as well. Methylation of the thalidomide molecule enhanced the aqueous solubility 6-fold, but as the alkyl chain length is further extended from methyl to pentyl, the aqueous solubility decreased exponentially. The destabilization of the crystalline structure with increasing alkyl chain length led to an increase in lipophilicity and consequently an increase in solubility in nonpolar media. Log partition coefficients increased linearly with increasing alkyl chain length. Solubilities in a series of n-alcohols, methanol through dodecanol, were found to be in the order of pentyl > propyl > methyl > thalidomide. The N-alkyl analogues have more favourable physicochemical properties than thalidomide to be delivered percutaneously. The in vitro skin permeation data proved that the analogues can be delivered far easier than thalidomide itself. N-methyl thalidomide showed the highest steady-state flux through human skin from water, n-alcohols and combination vehicles. Thalidomide and its N-alkyl analogues were all active as TNF-a inhibitors. Finally, active as a TNF-a inhibitor, N-methyl thalidomide is the most promising candidate to be delivered percutaneously for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, of those studied.
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