A sustainable internal marketing strategy for the National Parks in Botswana
De Bruin, Elmarie
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Internal marketing is the key to the success of external marketing and therefore to the success and profitability of the organisation, especially the service organisation. Most organisations emphasise only external marketing, forgetting that a moment of truth contact with the internal market (employees) can destroy the most expensive and creative external marketing campaign. If expectations raised in external marketing are not met when the customer interacts with the employee, everything is lost. The way that an organisation is perceived, is a direct result of how its employees behave and perform. Organisations need to take cognisance of internal marketing being a road map for organisational behaviour. This study attempts to explore and evaluate the elements that need to be included in an internal marketing strategy specifically for the national parks of Botswana. It offers a discussion of the marketing mix elements applied to an internal marketing context. In chapters 3-8 attention is paid to the internal marketing mix elements of product, price, process, place (internal distribution), promotion (marketing communication) and customer service (people/physical evidence) elements. The empirical research evaluates the opinions and perceptions of employees of the national parks of Botswana and customers (tourists) visiting the parks on the different elements of the marketing mix. Chapter 9 explains the research methodology used while Chapter 10 offers a reflection on the results and analysis and interpretation of these results. The recommendations in Chapter 11 consist of an internal marketing strategy, which is also the ultimate objective of this study. The most important outcome of the study is that the internal product (the job) and the process and distribution used in the execution of the internal product, causes frustration and influence the motivation levels of the employees. The physical evidence manifested in the maintenance and cleanliness of the physical facilities of national parks has an influence on the image of national parks and therefore Botswana, because national parks are the face of Botswana and its people.