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A review of the prescribing patterns of combination analgesics in the private health care sector / Hanlie Kruger

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dc.contributor.author Kruger, Hanlie
dc.date.accessioned 2009-05-22T08:32:24Z
dc.date.available 2009-05-22T08:32:24Z
dc.date.issued 2007
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10394/1824
dc.description Thesis (M.Pharm. (Pharmacy Practice))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2008.
dc.description.abstract South African prescribers have a large choice of combination analgesic preparations available for prescribing. According to Desmeules et al. (2003:8) the advantages of combining analgesics include increasing the duration of analgesia, widening the spectrum of efficacy, improved patient compliance and reduced parenteral abuse potential. According to McMahon (1975:13) one of the principle arguments against fixed-dose combinations is that the physician surrenders flexibility in managing his patient. Combination analgesics may expose patients to ingredients not necessary for pain relief in their particular condition (Beaver, 1984). Rigas (1997:454) explains that the value of pharmaco-economics in providing cost-effective pharmacologic treatment for pain must not only be seen as a containment effort, but rather as a valuation effort. Meaningful economic analyses based on empiric information about cost and a range of subjective and objective outcomes are needed to minimise cost without compromising care. The objective of this study was to review and interpret the prescribing patterns of combination analgesics and the cost associated with their usage for the period 2001-2006 in a section of the private healthcare sector in South Africa. This research can be classified as a quantitative, retrospective drug utilisation review study. Data were obtained from a medicine claims database, and the study population consisted of all combination analgesic prescriptions (Mims® category 3.3) for the period 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2002 and 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2006. Prescribing Patterns of Combination Analgesics in the Private Health Care Sector. Firstly pain and the treatment thereof with combination analgesics were investigated from the literature to understand the disease and to determine the prevalence and treatment thereof. Secondly, managed health care, drug utilisation review, pharmacoeconomics and pharmaco-epidemiology were investigated from the literature to understand these concepts. The influence of the South African government on the medicine pricing regulations was discussed. Thirdly, through the empirical investigation the utilisation patterns of combination analgesics were reviewed, analysed and interpreted. It was determined that combination analgesic drugs represented 8.87% (n=261 907) of all medicine claimed during 2001 (N=2 951 326), decreased to 7.20% (n=381 809) during 2004 (N=5 305 846) after which it increased to 7.92% (n=187 745) in 2006 (N=2 370 572). Between 2001 (N=R379 708 489.00) and 2006 (N=R279 160 832.00) the cost percentage of the combination analgesic drugs decreased from 4.95% (n=R18 798 202.42) to 3.15% (n=R8 791 228.57). The average cost per combination analgesic drugs decreased from R71.77 ± 61.67 to R46.83 ± 43.41 between 2001 and 2006. This decrease was of no practical significance (d<0.8). The average number of combination analgesics per prescription stayed relatively constant varying between 1.01 ± 0.11 in 2001 and 1.02 ± 0.13 in 2006. The percentage generic combination analgesic drugs claimed increased from 29.63% (n=77 608) in 2001 to 66.37% (n=124 600) in 2006 (N=261 907 for 2001 and N=187 745 for 2006) even though generic medicine items claimed by the total database only increased from 26.79% (n=790 548) in 2001 to 40.27% (n=954 561) during 2006 (N=2 951 326 for 2001 and N=2 370 572 for 2006). The combination of ibuprofen 200mg, paracetamol 250mg and codeine phosphate 10mg (e.g. Myprodol® capsules, Mybulen® capsules, Gen-payne® capsules and Ibupain Forte® capsules) represented the active ingredient combination with the highest prevalence for the entire study period, increasing from 28.44% (n=74 483) in 2001 to 33.08% (n=62 100) in 2006 of all combination analgesics prescribed (N=261 907 for 2001 and N=187 745 for 2006). Generic substitution influenced the prevalence of the innovator medicine item, Myprodol® Capsules dramatically, causing a decrease from 23.16% (n=60 631) in 2001 to 3.77% (n=7 084) in 2006 representation of all combination analgesic prescribed. In 2006, the generics of Myprodol® Capsules e.g. Dentopain Forte®, Mybulen® Capsules, Gen-payne® and Ibupain Forte® represented 23.79% (n=44651) of all combination analgesics claimed. Recommendations were derived regarding certain aspects of the clinical and economical management of pain e.g. the implication of generic substitution with regard to cost and prescribing patterns, and the decreasing cost of combination analgesics which might encourage abuse, needs further investigation. South African prescribers have a large choice of combination analgesic preparations available for prescribing. According to Desmeules et al. (2003:8) the advantages of combining analgesics include increasing the duration of analgesia, widening the spectrum of efficacy, improved patient compliance and reduced parenteral abuse potential. According to McMahon (1975:13) one of the principle arguments against fixed-dose combinations is that the physician surrenders flexibility in managing his patient. Combination analgesics may expose patients to ingredients not necessary for pain relief in their particular condition (Beaver, 1984). Rigas (1997:454) explains that the value of pharmaco-economics in providing cost-effective pharmacologic treatment for pain must not only be seen as a containment effort, but rather as a valuation effort. Meaningful economic analyses based on empiric information about cost and a range of subjective and objective outcomes are needed to minimise cost without compromising care. The objective of this study was to review and interpret the prescribing patterns of combination analgesics and the cost associated with their usage for the period 2001-2006 in a section of the private healthcare sector in South Africa. This research can be classified as a quantitative, retrospective drug utilisation review study. Data were obtained from a medicine claims database, and the study population consisted of all combination analgesic prescriptions (Mims® category 3.3) for the period 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2002 and 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2006. Prescribing Patterns of Combination Analgesics in the Private Health Care Sector. Firstly pain and the treatment thereof with combination analgesics were investigated from the literature to understand the disease and to determine the prevalence and treatment thereof. Secondly, managed health care, drug utilisation review, pharmacoeconomics and pharmaco-epidemiology were investigated from the literature to understand these concepts. The influence of the South African government on the medicine pricing regulations was discussed. Thirdly, through the empirical investigation the utilisation patterns of combination analgesics were reviewed, analysed and interpreted. It was determined that combination analgesic drugs represented 8.87% (n=261 907) of all medicine claimed during 2001 (N=2 951 326), decreased to 7.20% (n=381 809) during 2004 (N=5 305 846) after which it increased to 7.92% (n=187 745) in 2006 (N=2 370 572). Between 2001 (N=R379 708 489.00) and 2006 (N=R279 160 832.00) the cost percentage of the combination analgesic drugs decreased from 4.95% (n=R18 798 202.42) to 3.15% (n=R8 791 228.57). The average cost per combination analgesic drugs decreased from R71.77 ± 61.67 to R46.83 ± 43.41 between 2001 and 2006. This decrease was of no practical significance (d<0.8). The average number of combination analgesics per prescription stayed relatively constant varying between 1.01 ± 0.11 in 2001 and 1.02 ± 0.13 in 2006. The percentage generic combination analgesic drugs claimed increased from 29.63% (n=77 608) in 2001 to 66.37% (n=124 600) in 2006 (N=261 907 for 2001 and N=187 745 for 2006) even though generic medicine items claimed by the total database only increased from 26.79% (n=790 548) in 2001 to 40.27% (n=954 561) during 2006 (N=2 951 326 for 2001 and N=2 370 572 for 2006). The combination of ibuprofen 200mg, paracetamol 250mg and codeine phosphate 10mg (e.g. Myprodol® capsules, Mybulen® capsules, Gen-payne® capsules and Ibupain Forte® capsules) represented the active ingredient combination with the highest prevalence for the entire study period, increasing from 28.44% (n=74 483) in 2001 to 33.08% (n=62 100) in 2006 of all combination analgesics prescribed (N=261 907 for 2001 and N=187 745 for 2006). Generic substitution influenced the prevalence of the innovator medicine item, Myprodol® Capsules dramatically, causing a decrease from 23.16% (n=60 631) in 2001 to 3.77% (n=7 084) in 2006 representation of all combination analgesic prescribed. In 2006, the generics of Myprodol® Capsules e.g. Dentopain Forte®, Mybulen® Capsules, Gen-payne® and Ibupain Forte® represented 23.79% (n=44651) of all combination analgesics claimed. Recommendations were derived regarding certain aspects of the clinical and economical management of pain e.g. the implication of generic substitution with regard to cost and prescribing patterns, and the decreasing cost of combination analgesics which might encourage abuse, needs further investigation.
dc.publisher North-West University
dc.subject Combination analgesics en
dc.subject Drug utilisation review en
dc.subject Generic en
dc.subject Innovator en
dc.subject Managed health care en
dc.subject Pain en
dc.subject Pharmacoeconomics en
dc.subject Pharmacoepidemiology en
dc.subject Private health care sector en
dc.title A review of the prescribing patterns of combination analgesics in the private health care sector / Hanlie Kruger en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.description.thesistype Masters


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