Die verband tussen skoolhoofleierskapstyl, skoolklimaat en leerderprestasie
Van Jaarsveld, Magdalena Christina
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The community comprises several organizations with leaders and followers by whom leadership takes place. Leadership takes place in different contexts and environments, and its nature is determined by leaders and followers' performances within that context. A principals' leadership at school particularly manifests by means of his or her leadership styles. These leadership styles are adjusted according to the context and environment of the school. Therefore, the research question is the following: Which Principal leadership styles are the most appropriate to ensure a positive school climate and learner achievement? The Multiple Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to determine the leadership styles of Principals from 72 participating schools in the research. This measure consists of 36 questions to determine whether Principals demonstrate a transforming, transactional or passive-avoidant leadership style. The nature of a Principal’s leadership style has an effect on the school climate or rather the atmosphere in which teachers work. School climate does not exist apart from school culture, behaviour, relationships and learner achievement. The behaviour of a Principal, teachers and learners determines a healthy school climate. The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire-Rutgers Secondary (OCDQ-RS) was used to determine the school climate. This instrument consists of 34 questions and five factors to measure how Principals and teachers experience their school climate. Both questionnaires were distributed among Principals and teachers of 72 schools in KwaZulu-Natal. This scientific sample represented schools in KwaZulu-Natal. The results of the 2013 Mathematics for the National Senior Certificate as well as learner numbers and the quintile status of Secondary Schools in South Africa for 2013 were used in 72 schools to determine the best distribution of averages for the National Senior Certificate. The purpose was to determine the influence of Principal leadership styles and school climate on learner achievement. 56 principals and 289 teachers from 72 schools responded. Data was analysed with several statistic techniques and procedures to determine Principals and teachers' perceptions of Principal leadership styles and school climate. Factor analysis was applied to show the construct legitimacy of both questionnaires within the South African sample. It was found that both questionnaires are reliable within the South African context. Results show that transforming and transactional leadership styles seem to be the most appropriate in order to promote learner achievement in schools of this study. The trustworthy behaviour of a Principal and teachers contributes towards a positive school climate. It seems that the trustworthy behaviour of a Principal would maximally contribute towards learner achievement. At the end of the study a model has been developed to show the relationship between the most positive Principal leadership style, a positive school climate and good learner achievement. The model accentuates the importance of social interdependence and communication as well as the mutual connection between Principal leadership styles, school climate and learner achievement.
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