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dc.contributor.advisorDe Ridder, J.H.
dc.contributor.advisorWilders, C.J.
dc.contributor.authorStroebel, Suzanne
dc.date.accessioned2009-07-28T07:55:29Z
dc.date.available2009-07-28T07:55:29Z
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10394/2103
dc.descriptionThesis (Ph.D. (Human Movement Science))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2008.
dc.description.abstractProlonged poor posture induces abnormal stress on supporting structures of the spinal column and can cause chronic back pain, which usually develops while standing, walking or doing other activities of daily living. Children in rural areas are exposed to hard physical labour and food intake in rural areas is mostly unbalanced or inadequate. If a relationship exists between overweight and the prevalence of postural deformities, the high rate of overweight children reported in the literature appears to be cumbersome. Also, it is apparent that the condition of being overweight co-exists with being stunted (underweight) in many developing countries, which will be a cause of great concern if a high prevalence of postural deformities is found among stunted children. Research on African South African children living in rural areas which focuses on the prevalence of postural deformities and the influence of body composition on the prevalence rates for postural deformities will provide an opportunity to understand the role of undernutrition and malnutrition in the normal development of posture in rural children and the importance thereof. This thesis is comprised of seven chapters of which five chapters (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) can be read independently as they are written in the form of research articles, Main findings The first purpose of the study was to conduct a literature review on aspects such as: the definition and concept of good posture, normal postural development, postural deformities, influence of bone growth, incidence rates of postural deformities and influence of body composition on postural deformities. The literature review was done to gain more insight regarding postural deformities, normal growth and development of children and the role that body composition plays in the development of postural deformities. The importance of these aspects are highlighted and discussed in Chapter 2. The second purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of postural deformities among 11 to 13 year old African South African children in selected schools in the North West Province (Chapter 3). A total of 168 children (79 boys and 89 girls) were evaluated. Results showed a high prevalence rate of postural deformities, especially in lordosis, winged scapulae, protruding abdomen, kyphosis and pronated feet. Most of the postural deformities were classified as abnormal, meaning the degree of deviation was severe. The third purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence rate of postural deformities and body composition status of 11 to 13 year old African South African girls from the North West Province with girls of the same age from a different ethnic group and sosio-economic environment (Chapter 4). A total of 216 girls (89 African and 127 Caucasian) were evaluated. The African South African girls showed a significantly higher prevalence rate for winged scapulae, kyphosis, protruding abdomen, lordosis and pronated feet, and a significantly lower prevalence rate for uneven shoulders with regard to Caucasian South African girls. The majority of postural deformities in African girls was classified as abnormal, where in the Caucasian girls the majority was classified as slightly abnormal, meaning the degree of deviation in the African children was more severe. With regard to Body Mass Index (BMI), in the 11 and 13 year old group, the African girls demonstrated a significantly lower BMI compared to the Caucasian girls. With regard to percentage body fat, in the 11 and 13 year old group, the African girls demonstrated a significantly lower percentage body fat, compared to the Caucasian girls. The fourth purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence rate of postural deformities and body composition status of 11 to 13 year old African South African boys from the North West Province with boys of the same age from a different ethnic group and sosio-economic environment (Chapter 5). A total of 219 boys (79 African and 140 Caucasian) were evaluated. The African South African boys showed a significantly higher prevalence rate for winged scapulae, protruding abdomen, lordosis, kyphosis, pronated feet and flat feet and a significantly lower prevalence rate for uneven shoulders with regard to Caucasian South African boys. The majority of postural deformities in African boys was classified as abnormal, where in the Caucasian boys the majority was classified as slightly abnormal, meaning the degree of deviation in the African children was more severe. With regard to BMI in all three age groups, the African boys demonstrated a significantly lower BMI compared to the Caucasian boys. With regard to percentage body fat in all three age groups, the African boys demonstrated a significantly lower percentage body fat compared to the Caucasian boys. The fifth purpose of the study was to determine to what extent body composition contributes to the prevalence of postural deformities in 11 to 13 year old African South African children from the North West Province (Chapter 6). A total of 168 children (79 boys and 89 girls) were evaluated. In boys, results demonstrated a statistical significant association between protruding abdomen and BMI, and also for the association of winged scapulae and protruding abdomen with percentage body fat. A large practical significant difference in BMI and percentage body fat was demonstrated between the different categories of winged scapulae and lordosis. In girls, results demonstrated a statistical significant association between BMI and percentage body fat with winged scapulae, protruding abdomen and flat feet. A large practical significant difference in BMI was demonstrated between the different categories of winged scapulae and flat feet and also in percentage body fat with regards to the different categories of flat feet. Chapter 7 includes a general discussion, conclusion, limitations and recommendations for schools, practices, parents as well as for future research. It can be concluded that the prevalence of postural deformities in African South African children in the North West Province is high and that ethnicity and body composition have an influence on the prevalence rates for postural deformities. Furthermore, recommendations are made about the implementation of school-screening programmes in rural areas, the role of the government, parents and teachers, and the importance of adequate food intake.
dc.publisherNorth-West University
dc.titleThe prevalence of postural deformities and body composition status of 11 to 13 year old South African children in selected schools in the North West Provinceen
dc.typeThesisen
dc.description.thesistypeDoctoral


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