Job insecurity and self-efficacy in a chemical industry
Kriese, Petru Johanna
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In order to stay competitive in an economic landscape characterised by constant turmoil and change, organisations in the chemical industry are engaging in various adaptive strategies like mergers, acquisitions and diversification. Adaptation strategies may vary but they all have similar results in common, one of which is the exposure of employees to feelings of uncertainty and job insecurity. Identifying factors that enable employees to effectively deal with job insecurity is becoming an increasingly important topic for research. The primary objectives of this research were to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, general health and organisational citizenship behaviour of employees in a chemical industry, as well as to determine whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between job insecurity and general health on the one hand and between job insecurity and organisational citizenship behaviour on the other hand. The research method consists of a literature review and an empirical study. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the data. An availability sample (N = 205) was taken from employees in a chemical industry. The Job Insecurity Questionnaire (JIQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCB), General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GPSES) and a biographical questionnaire were administered. The statistical analysis was carried out with the SPSS program. Principal component factor analysis confirmed a two factor structure for job insecurity consisting of affective job insecurity and cognitive job insecurity. Factor analysis resulted in three factors for general health, namely psychosomatic symptoms, severe depression and social dysfunction. The two factors of the OCB were confIrmed and were labeled altruism and compliance. The unidimensional structure of the GPSES could also be confirmed and was labeled self-efficacy. All scales indicated acceptable reliability with Cronbach alpha coefficients varying from 0,70 to 0,89. Spearman product-moment correlations indicated a statistically positive correlation (practically significant, medium effect) between cognitive job insecurity and affective job insecurity. Results further indicated that an increase in psychosomatic symptoms will lead to an increase in severe depression and social dysfunction, while an increase in severe depression will be associated with an increase in social dysfunction. It was found that when altruism increased, self-efficacy will also increase. The hypothesised mediating effect of self-efficacy was only partially demonstrated for the relationship between affective job insecurity and general health, as demonstrated by severe depression. Self-efficacy was further shown to mediate the relationship between cognitive job insecurity and altruism. The relationship between cognitive job insecurity and affective job insecurity as dependent variables and compliance as an independent variable were partially mediated by self-efficacy. MANOVA analysis indicated that female employees experienced higher levels of cognitive job insecurity than male employees. White employees and employees with a degree exhibited more organisational citizenship behaviour, as demonstrated by compliance. Results further indicated that African employees and employees with a qualification of up to Grade 11 experienced higher levels of severe depression. Recommendations for future research were made, as well as recommendations to the participating organisation.