A biblical evaluation of avenging spirits (ngozi) among the Shona people of Zimbabwe : a pastoral response
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This study is a biblical evaluation of avenging spirits (ngozi) among the Shona people of Zimbabwe. It investigates the Shona understanding of ngozi, the biblical teaching on the spirits that manifest as those of the dead and how the church in Zimbabwe can effectively respond to the ngozi crisis with a pastoral care that is biblically informed and in a practically effective way. The study commences with an evaluation of the biblical teaching on the communication of the living with the dead. This is followed by other related questions to the subject such as the biblical teaching on vengeance for murder and the identity of the spirits that manifest as those of the dead. The Shona traditional understanding of ngozi is examined, giving attention to its types and the way the traditional Shona and the church in Zimbabwe currently address the ngozi crisis. Additionally, the interaction between the belief in ngozi among the Shona and the biblical teaching of spirits that manifest as those of the dead is examined. The outcome of this interaction leads to a proposal on practical guidelines for helping those affected by ngozi crisis and preventing a continuation of the crisis in the present and future Shona generations.
- ETD@PUK