Numeriese model van vloei deur 'n vastebedvergasser
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The gasifier reactor forms an integral part of the SASOL prosess. It is therefore important that the gasifier must be operated at its optimum and most stable condition. The flow of gas in the reactor has a direct influence on the stability of the gasifier. A technique to measure the flow in the reactor does not exist. In this study the cold, incompressible flow in the gasifier is studied. This was done by solving the mathematical model of flow through a packed bed numerically with a computer program. The computer model was tested successfully against experimental and empirical data. The computer model was used to simulate the flow for different gas inlet and outlet geometries. Recommendations was made that will result in a more stable and optimum operation of the gasifier. 3878$10394/2$1990$http://hdl.handle.net/10394/3780$A sociolinguistic approach, taking into account geographical and situational factors, was followed in this multi-dialect research. Variation, as manifested in the variety Oranjerivier-Afrikaans (OA), was researched to determine: *the characteristics of a 'standard' Oranjerivier-Afrikaans in order to distinguish, and to establish the differences between Oranjerivier-Afrikaans and other varieties (such as Kaapse-Afrikaans and Van Der Merwe Afrikaans); *whether the sub-varieties Griekwa-Afrikaans, blanke Oranjerivier-Afrikaans, Riemvasmaakafrikaans, Richtersveld-Afrikaans, Rehoboth-Afrikaans and Kharkam-Afrikaans belong to the variety Oranjerivier-Afrikaans (as maintained in each of the previous investigations into language varieties); *whether there is a difference between the language used in the eastern part of the Orange River area and that used in the western part where Nama is still known; whether the varieties of Afrikaans spoken in southern Namibia and in Botswana could be typified as subvarieties of Oranjerivier-Afrikaans, as research on all language levels regarding varieties had not previously been undertaken in these two speech communities. The unique characteristics of Oranjerivier-Afrikaans were determined by using Kaapse-Afrikaans and Van der Merwe Afrikaans. (10 language transcriptions were used.) Data collection and data processing: Previously collected data (available tapes or transcriptions of each variety) were used to compile an inventory of distinctive characteristics concerning the phonological, morphological, syntactical and lexical structures. These distinctive characteristics were determined by integrating the data and findings of previous investigations into the above-mentioned sub-varieties. The data was systemized, interpreted and analyzed, and conclusions regarding the (sub-)varieties were made on each level of analysis. Findings: It was found that the varieties of Afrikaans as mentioned in I are indeed sub varieties of Oranjerivier-Afrikaans. Measured against the 'standard' Oranjerivier-Afrikaans, which varies from Standaard-Afrikaans, Kaapse-Afrikaans and Van der Merwe Afrikaans, there were more similarities than differences in the sub-varieties. A further distinction can be made regarding the Afrikaans spoken in the eastern part of the Orange River area, on grammatical and phonological levels. In this area there is more contact with Standaard-Afrikaans and the language spoken in the western part, where speakers are isolated and Nama is still known.
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