A novel quantification of the relationship between blood sugar and stress / Y.J. Chen
The rapid growth of biotechnology has promoted industries to harness the market in the field of human energy systems. A growing literature of research has linked human energy systems to weight loss, major diseases or illnesses. In our modern society, the general public is exposed to everyday stress, which often results in the development of chronic stress. Therefore, stress becomes an important area of medicine. It has been postulated that suppressing these physiological responses may help in disease prevention. Consequently, there is an urge for defining a model integrating stress with the human energy model. Over the past decades, a large amount of research has been put forward in defining the physiological responses or changes when an individual experiences psychological or environmental changes such as interpersonal dysfunction, traumatic experiences and diseases. Interestingly, it reveals that blood glucose fluctuation tends to be the end product of most psychological or physiological stressors. The blood glucose system is one of the major subsystems of the complete metabolic fuel system in humans. In this study, an empirical model and procedure for the derivation of the model due to various psychological influences on the human energy system are presented. This study can be divided into two main sections. An overview of a previously developed unit (ets: equivalent teaspoon sugar) for blood glucose quantification is given in the first section. Stress quantification methods are derived in the second section and a link between these methods and ets is drawn. A verification study of the derived model is also presented in the second section. Stress can be divided into physiological stress and psychological stress. Between the two types of stress, a generalised model based on studies of physiological stress has been drawn and accepted by the public. However, the generalised model does not account for psychological stress. Evidence shows that depending on the specific nature of a stressful circumstance, it can cause different activations of central circuits leading to the release of different neurotransmitters. However, these neurotransmitters have a common effect of increasing blood glucose concentrations. A substantial amount of literature shows that, when stress involves mental effort, epinephrine (EPI) is the main endocrine response. However, stress that does not require mental effort mainly induces cortisol release. The response models for different types of stress were derived using these relations. Furthermore, it is known that prolonged stress may lead to the development of disease. Several studies have used this observation and associated chronic stress with the relative risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previously, different quartiles of risk factors for CVD have been related to blood glucose energy and ets expenditure. This link was further utilised to quantify chronic stress in this study. Increases in either of the two endocrine concentrations have been shown to raise the blood glucose level. In order to demonstrate the benefits of applying the ets concept, the cortisol and epinephrine responses were further quantified using the new glucose quantification method, the equivalent teaspoon sugar (ets) concept. The models derived in this study were verified against measured data. The models reveal a strong agreement with the measured data and therefore support the feasibility of these quantification methods. In conclusion, a link does exist between blood glucose energy and stress, and the highly accurate models derived for this association may serve as an adjunct tool for glycaemic control and stress management.
- ETD@PUK