Successful cities are based on successful neighbourhoods : a strategic and modelling approach to sustainable integrated neighbourhood development
Moroke, Tseliso Patrick
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South Africa’s urban areas’ spatial setting and fabric reflects the consequences of fragmented spatial systems. The evaluation of spatial variables between the city core neighbourhoods and township neighbourhoods reveals that very little space is afforded for connectivity and integration, local facilities and spatial components which are themselves pillars of sustainable urban form and which are not preferentially factored into township neighbourhoods. Both from the technical and ethical perspectives – local facilities and functional connectivity generate parallel economic and social benefits enabling households and communities to improve their quality of living. From the technical assessment perspective (service) delivery strategies, accessibility and sustainable modes of living are linked to spatial planning processes. To achieve equity within urban areas, spatial planning interface has a direct influence towards effectiveness and normality of urban areas and spatial transformation. At the neighbourhood level, effective land use tends to contribute to sustainable development requirements. There is a significant relationship between land use and sustainability that could yield significant neighbourhood structural form. In reality these existing spatial compositions consist of intricate networks of high order roads, land uses, aspects of economic growth and development, human activities and transportation issues. These urban systems claim sustainability measures and form the initial step for comparison between advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. When drawing up social services to act as the basis from which sustainability in urban areas could be determined – in various reviews it is reflected that urban sustainability cannot be achieved without adequate social facilities that are differentiated by neighbourhoods varying development densities, community size, mobility levels and socio-economic variations. The sustainability level of neighbourhood living spaces has proved to influence the overall sustainable urban development as it constitutes a major component of urban land use. Spatial planning requires that sustainability modes of living, social services and economic opportunities be provided spatially in a manner that is rationally based on people’s needs and the access distance norms and standards. Both a sustainable neighbourhood structure form and the importance of adopting a measuring system are emphasized. It is difficult to achieve neighbourhood sustainability without determining the degree of sustainability initiatives. Making neighbourhood sustainability indicators the main framework in the analysis and the way of implementing successful neighbourhood model (SNM). The SNM is developed as the comprehensive sustainability assessment tool. The multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is used as a means of sustainability assessment and/or performance evaluation as it makes it easy and more efficient for SNM to measure the level of sustainability initiatives. The systematic approach of MCA includes careful consideration of criteria selection, weighting and ranking. In order to unearth unbalanced nature and then to identify rectification steps or interventions the neighbourhoods case studies are selected. The neighbourhood case studies are assessed using the MCA tools allowing each case to be compared by area of sustainability measure and ranking. The MCA sustainability assessment applications include highlighting areas of low or high performance and case studies comparisons and ranking. The recommendations are presented based on the conclusions as well as proposed tools
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