Patterns of Rural-Urban migration in South Africa
Ntshidi, Abigail Tumisang
MetadataShow full item record
Background: In South Africa, rural-urban migration trends are increasing at a fast rate, from 15 per 1000 in 2001 to about 28 per 1000 in 2011, with people aged 0-14 years joining the migration stream. This movement has its own advantages and disadvantages for both the place of origin and the destination and has resulted in extensive social-economic pressure, especially in the receiving areas. Objective: The study investigated the patterns of rural-urban migration among native South Africans between 2001 and 2011 using census ten per cent sample data based on usual place of residence. Method: Basic descriptive statistics were used to describe variables in terms of frequencies and percentages. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression model were used to estimate factors associated with rural-urban migration in South Africa over the two study periods. Results: The prevalence of rural-urban migration in 2001 and 2011 were 53,998 and 117,604 respectively. Furthermore the study found that South Africans who were aged 31 or older represented the largest proportion of the migrants in 2001 (36.8%) and 2011 (39.2%). This was followed by youth aged 14 years and younger. Moreover, the study found people with physical disabilities was associated with decreased likelihood to migrate in 2001 (OR=0.69, 95% CI [0.66-0.71], p < 0.001) and more likely to migrate in 2011 (OR=1.25, 95% CI [1.20-1.28], p < 0.001). In respect to gender, in 2001, females were more likely to transfer to urban areas, (OR=1.12, 95% CI [1.09-1.13], p < 0.001) compared to males (reference point). Conversely, it was found that females were significantly more likely (OR=1.01, 95% CI [0.90-0.92], p<0.001) to move to urban areas than their male counterparts in 2011. Other factors such as marital status, level of education, employment status, and father alive and mother alive, and income status were significant predictors of rural-urban migration. It is worth noting that children ever born (CEB) to migrants had an insignificant association with rural-urban migration in 2001 and CEB was found to be a significant predictor of rural-urban migration in 2011. Conclusion: The study concludes that the high rate of migration of the disabled from rural areas to the urban areas in the two periods leads to a recommendation that those urban areas should have facilities that are equipped to accommodate disabled people. Furthermore, the results also show that rural-urban migrants in South Africa are young, educated, largely unemployed and never married. Migrants with the above characteristics pose serious social and security challenges in the urban areas of destination. Their predominance in the Southern African migration stream could explain the increasing level of violence and other crimes in urban areas of South Africa. It is therefore recommended that the South African government and the private sector create effective programmes that can provide employment opportunities and skills development for the above mentioned migrants.
- Humanities