A geographic information system-based approach of flood hazards modelling, Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India
Panda, Gopal K.
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From the beginning of civilisation, human beings have preferred living on the river banks which have been the most vulnerable areas of flood hazards and consequent disasters. During the monsoon period, in many developing countries of south-east Asia, flood hazards and disasters have been a serious challenge for their development. Most of the rivers exceed their normal channel capacity attaining the flood stage and frequently overflow their banks, causing great havoc to the life and property of the people. Flooding is a very serious problem in many districts of West Bengal. The prime concern of delineation of flood-prone areas is to regulate the land use in the flood-prone areas to restrict damage potential and also mitigate the negative effects of floods on people and the economy. In a regulated way, flood-prone areas are required to be developed. Because, on one hand, it is to be ensured that existing hazard and flood damage potential do not increase and new developmental works become a step towards mitigation of disaster risk. In a perspective view, the demarcation and identification of floodprone areas of different magnitudes, frequencies and return periods on a large-scale map seem to have great importance. Satellite-derived flood maps from 2007 to 2016 have been applied to form a flood frequency map and the same as a group of flood depth maps has been employed to produce the Flood Damage Map for depth data of flood. Finally, the modelling of flood hazards has been directed by envisaging amalgamation of Flood Depth and Flood Affected Frequency. Then the final flood hazard map amalgamated with population and housing data has been used to ascertain the flood disclosure for these two components. Flood hazard analysis in the study area revealed that 24% of the population has been located in high flood hazard zones, where 39% of human settlements are located in different flood hazard zones.