8-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,3,7-triethylxanthine is a synthetic caffeine substitute with stronger metabolic modulator activity
Carrageta, David F.
Van der Walt, Mietha M.
Dias, Tânia R.
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Caffeine is one of the most worldwide consumed methylxanthines. It is well-known for its thermogenic and cell metabolism modulating effects. Based on methylxanthines' chemical structure, 8-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,3,7-triethylxanthine (PTX) is a novel adenosine antagonist with higher receptor affinity than caffeine. Therefore, we hypothesized that PTX metabolic effects could be stronger than those of caffeine. For that purpose, murine 3T3-L1 cells were cultured in the presence of increasing doses of PTX or caffeine (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μM) for 24 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Cell metabolites released to the culture medium were identified and quantified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Cellular oxidative profile was also evaluated. Our results showed that PTX displayed no signs of cytotoxicity at all studied concentrations. When compared with caffeine, PTX increased glucose, pyruvate, and glutamine consumption, as well as lactate, alanine, and acetate production. Additionally, PTX decreased protein oxidation, thus protecting against oxidative stress-induced damage. These results illustrate that PTX is a stronger and less cytotoxic caffeine substitute with potential applications as metabolic modulator and a good candidate for novel drug design