A model for positive customer citizenship behaviour in the mobile banking application environment
Customer citizenship behaviour concerns the voluntary actions performed by customers that may benefit the organisation and for which customers will receive no formal remuneration in return. Examples of customer citizenship behaviour include recommending the organisation to fellow consumers (advocacy) and helping them in the correct use of the service. Grounded in the social exchange theory, it is presumed that customers perform these types of positive citizenship behaviours in appreciation of the benefits they believe they have received from the organisation. A further review of customer citizenship behaviour literature revealed that, despite the proliferation of existing studies, the topic had received little attention in the electronic banking environment, and its links to technology adoption models are not known. Extant research tends to focus on understanding models explaining consumer acceptance of information technology, with many professing that customers' beliefs about the benefits of the technology may impact their attitudes, intentions and behaviour. Based on the assumptions of the social exchange theory, this study then considered the possibility that both the principles of the technology adoption models and customer citizenship behaviour may be relevant in the electronic banking environment. Specifically, it is possible that customers with positive beliefs about the electronic banking service may develop positive attitudes and, in the deliberation of the benefits engage in customer citizenship behaviour. These matters required further investigation to advance theory and to benefit the electronic banking environment. The retail banking industry in South Africa is highly competitive with customers demanding quick and effective services. As such, a dynamic era of technological developments that are irreversibly changing the retail banking landscape has emerged in response to the importance of being relevant and competitive. Retail banks are particularly interested in mobile banking applications (apps), as they offer safe and secure banking services on the go and may contribute to reducing infrastructure costs. Despite these advantages, however, it seems that customers may be reluctant to use mobile banking apps due to a lack of trust or scepticism. Customer citizenship behaviour may present a solution to this problem where current users can teach fellow consumers the correct service usage and perhaps do the marketing on behalf of the bank. The subsequent literature investigation established that building quality relationships with customers who are users of mobile banking apps could show to be favourable for retail banks. Specifically, customer satisfaction (a backward-looking attitude) and affective commitment (a forward-looking attitude) may contribute to positive customer citizenship behaviour in the form of advocacy and help behaviour. It was further established that the belief factors of the extended UTUAT model as well as competence trust may have a positive and significant impact on the attitudes of existing users of mobile banking apps. Hence, a conceptual model was developed for further investigation. The research design was descriptive and quantitative. The population was defined as males and females in Gauteng, who were using at least one mobile banking app of one of the five main retail banks in South Africa. Non-probability, judgement sampling was used to select the sampling units (five main retail banks). A sampling quota of 100 respondents (sampling elements) per main retail bank was pre-determined to be approached by convenience. Self-administered questionnaires were emailed to a list of electronic banking users in Gauteng and were also physically distributed among respondents in this province forming part of the target population. A screening question ensured only respondents from the target population would participate in the survey. Previously validated measurement scales were adapted for the questionnaire, and the items were measured on a five-point unlabelled Likert-type scale, based on the level of agreement. The fieldwork delivered a response rate of 12.54%, and a total of 533 completed questionnaires were deemed suitable for further analysis. To ensure the development of a parsimonious structural model, two measurement models were initially compiled using AMOS 24.0. The first model contained no second-order factors, while the second model included post-usage beliefs (representing all the belief factors investigated) and customer citizenship behaviour (representing advocacy and helping behaviour) as second-order factors. Following an assessment of the results, it was noted that the measurement model that includes the two second-order factors have construct validity and is regarded as superior to the measurement model that excluded the two second-order factors and that presented construct validity problems. Hence, it was concluded that the empirical results showed that post-usage beliefs (as a second-order factor) underlies perceptions of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, social influence, hedonic motivation and competence trust. Positive customer citizenship behaviour (as a second-order factor) underlies consumer advocacy and helping behaviour. Rendering the subsequent assessment of the structural model (that included the two second-order factors) it was be established that the fit indices indicate an acceptable model for this study. Post-usage beliefs have a positive and significant impact on customer satisfaction. Post-usage beliefs have a positive and significant impact on affective commitment. Customer satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on positive customer citizenship behaviour. Affective commitment has a positive and significant impact on positive customer citizenship behaviour, and customer satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on affective commitment. All research hypotheses formulated were subsequently accepted. The research findings make some important contributions to theory and practice. From a theoretical perspective, the most significant finding is that insight has been gained into the interrelationships between belief factors and attitudes that may contribute to customer citizenship behaviour. Specifically, it seems that within the self-service technology environment, the sequence of positive beliefs of the service, contributing to positive attitudes and that may lead to behaviour, such as the adoption of a service, may also be relevant in the post-consumption stage. However, the difference is that after the service has been consumed and satisfaction and commitment are gained, the behaviour may take the form of citizenship actions, as explained by the social exchange theory. Additionally, the research findings provide strategic direction to the retail banking industry in South Africa that is experiencing slow adoption of their mobile banking apps. Retail banks should focus on the belief factors investigated in this study and ensure their mobile banking service offering is well managed, as it may lead to customer satisfaction and affective commitment, which may result in positive customer citizenship behaviour. Ultimately the research findings serve as a starting point in understanding the link between technology adoption models and customer citizenship behaviour in the post-usage stage of self-service technologies. Further research is required to expand this model and to gain more insight into the matter. Hence, following an outline of the research limitations, this study concludes with strategic recommendations that may guide further research on this topic.