The incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in chicken and pork
Van Wijk, Eugénie
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The emergence of antibiotic resistance in important human pathogens has globally become a public health concern. Consumption of contaminated meat and meat products constitute a major route for the transmission of antibiotic resistant organisms and the dissemination of resistance genes in the human environment. The aim of this study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance in potentially pathogenic bacteria associated with pork, chicken meat, chicken manure, chicken feed and eggs. Standard procedures were employed for the selective enrichment and isolation of Escherichiu coli, Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Salmonella, and to determine the level of their susceptibility for penicillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, streptomycin, as well as aminoglycoside antibiotics. It was found that 10,1% of the total number of isolates were Pseudomonas, 25,3% Staphylococcus, 2 1,2% Enterohacteriuceae, 7,0% E. coli and 36,4% Salmonella. Statistical analysis of results showed clusters of isolates exhibiting similar patterns of antibiotic resistance. Except for resistance to penicillin, Pseudomonas isolates were largely susceptible to the antibiotics tested. Staphylococcus isolates were relatively susceptible, with the highest levels of resistance, in this case to oxytetracycline and tetracycline, observed in those from pork and chicken manure. High levels of resistance to oxytetracycline (71%), tetracycline (79%), streptomycin (52%), and penicillin (1 00%) were detected in Enlerohucteriuceue isolates from chicken meat samples. It was found in addition that E. coli from chicken meat samples 100% resistant to oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and penicillin, while Salmonella showed resistance to gentamycin (63%), tetracycline (46%), oxytetracycline and penicillin (99%). Indexing of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) confirmed the relatively high levels of resistance in E. coli and Salmonella from the chicken meat samples. Overall, results from the present study indicated that relatively high levels of resistance towards tetracycline, oxytetracycline and penicillin was observed in potentially pathogenic bacteria associated with pork, chicken meat, and the environment of the chicken industry. It was, however found that isolates from the respective bacterial groups were largely susceptible to the aminoglycoside antibiotics, as well as streptomycin and erythromycin.
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