Dual-Target-Directed Drugs that Block Monoamne Oxidase B and Adenosine A2A Receptors for Parkiinson's Disease
Schwarzschild, Michael A
Van der Schyf, Cornelis J
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Inadequacies of the current pharmacotherapies to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) have prompted efforts to identify novel drug targets. The adenosine A2A receptor is one such target. Antagonists of this receptor (A2A antagonists) are considered promising agents for the symptomatic treatment of PD. Evidence suggests that A2A antagonists may also have neuroprotective properties that may prevent the development of the dyskinesia that often complicates levodopa treatment. Because the therapeutic benefits of A2A antagonists are additive to that of dopamine replacement therapy, it may be possible to reduce the dose of the dopaminergic drugs and therefore the occurrence of side effects. Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B also are considered useful tools for the treatment of PD. When used in combination with levodopa, inhibitors of MAO-B may enhance the elevation of dopamine levels after levodopa treatment, particularly when used in early stages of the disease when dopamine production may not be so severely compromised. Furthermore, MAO-B inhibitors may also possess neuroprotective properties in part by reducing the damaging effect of dopamine turnover in the brain. These effects of MAO-B inhibitors are especially relevant when considering that the brain shows an age-related increase in MAO-B activity. Based on these observations, dual-target-directed drugs, compounds that inhibit MAO-B and antagonize A2A receptors, may have value in the management of PD. This review summarizes recent efforts to develop such dual-acting drugs using caffeine as the lead compound.