Gender, Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being
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Purpose. This study examined the role that various dimensions of subjective spirituality played in the maintenance of psychological well-being specifically among the population of adults 85 years of age and older. This study also investigated if this relationship differed by gender and ethnicity. Method. This study utilized an archival dataset to explore the questions of interest. The sample represented a nationwide randomly selected group of community dwelling older adults. Of the original sample, 163 participants were 85 years of age or older. One way multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine that data. Two separate 2x2 factorial MANOVAs were used to explore differences in this relationship across gender and ethnicity independently. Results. Of the three main hypotheses proposed for the present study, only one was fully supported by the statistical analysis. Overall results indicate that the presence of moderate spirituality is strongly correlated to greater psychological well-being. However, results indicated that this relationship did not vary when taking into consideration gender or ethnicity of participants, suggesting that the role of spirituality on psychological well-being is significant regardless of gender or ethnicity.