The application of artificial mussels in conjunction with transplanted bivalves to assess elemental exposure in a platinum mining area
Smit, Nico J.
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There is increasing evidence that platinum group elements (PGE) are pollutants of emerging concern worldwide. Limited information exists on levels, particularly in regions where PGEs are mined. A passive sampling device (i.e., the artificial mussel (AM)) and transplanted indicator organisms (i.e., the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminalis africana) were deployed along a PGE mining gradient in the Hex River, South Africa, and concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Pt, V, and Zn were determined after six weeks of exposure. Results showed differential uptake patterns for Pt, Cr, and Ni between the AMs and clams indicating availability differences. For monitoring purposes, a combination of AMs and indicator organisms provides a more holistic assessment of element exposure in aquatic environments