|dc.description.abstract||Aging can be described as an extremely complex occurrence from which no organism can be excluded. Intrinsic and extrinsic aging make out the two components of skin aging and they differ on the macromolecular level while sharing specific molecular characteristics which include elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) while collagen synthesis decreases. The skin functions as a protective barrier against the harsh environment and is essential for regulating body temperature. The stratum corneum (SC) is responsible for the main resistance to the penetration of most compounds; nevertheless the skin represents as an appropriate target for delivery. The target site for anti-aging treatment includes the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin. Calendula oil and L-carnitine L-tartrate was utilised as the cosmeceutical actives as they can be classified as a mixed category of compounds/products that lie between cosmetics and drugs. Both show excellent properties which can prove valuable during anti-aging treatment, whether it is due to the scavenging of ROS (calendula oil), moisturising effects (calendula oil and L-carnitine L-tartrate) or the improvement of the skin turnover rate (L-carnitine L-tartrate). The Pheroid™ delivery system can enhance the absorption of a selection of active ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Pheroid™ delivery system will enhance the flux and/or delivery of the named actives to the target site by performing Franz cell diffusion studies over an 8 h period, followed by tape stripping experiments. The Pheroid™ results of the actives were compared to the results obtained when 1 00 % calendula oil was applied and the L-carnitine L-tartrate was dissolved in phosphate buffer solution (PBS), respectively. In the case of calendula oil only a qualitative gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method could be employed. No calendula oil was observed to permeate through the skin, but linoleic acid (marker compound) was present in the epidermis and dermis layers. Components in the Pheroid™ delivery system hampered the results as the marker compound identified is a fundamental component of the Pheroid™, making it difficult to determine whether or not the Pheroid™ delivery system enhanced calendula oil's penetration. The aqueous solubility and log D partition coefficient of L-carnitine L-tartrate was determined. Inspection of the log D value of -1.35 indicated that the compound is unfavourable to penetrate the skin, whereas the aqueous solubility of 16.63 mg/ml in PBS at a temperature of 32º C indicated favourable penetration.
During the Franz cell diffusion and tape stripping studies it was determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) that carnitine may be inherent to human skin. Pheroid™ enhanced the flux (average of 0.0361 µg/cm2.h, median of 0.0393 µg/cm2.h) of the L-carnitine L-tartrate when compared to PBS (average of 0.0180 µg/cm2.h, median of 0.0142 µg/cm2.h ) for the time interval of 2 -8 h. The PBS was more effective in delivering the active to the target site (0.270 µg/ml in the epidermis and 2.403 µg/ml in the dermis) than Pheroid™ (0.111 µg/ml and 1.641 µg/ml in the epidermis and dermis respectively).
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed the entrapment of L-carnitine L-tartrate in the Pheroid™ vesicle, while in the case of calendula oil it was impossible to differentiate between the oil and the Pheroid™ components.||