Anaforiek in Afrikaans met spesiale verwysing na substandaardafrikaans
Prinsloo, Susanna Magrietha Catharina
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There are various and widely divergent ideas on anaphorics. In this study the emphasis was in the first place on the shifts in stress which have occurred in the course of time in the approaches to General Linguistics and therefore also to anaphorics. A study of the relevant literature indicated that the view according to which language is studied as an abstraction is unacceptable, seeing that this only offers a reflection of idealised forms. Through the study of language-in-use language is studied as it exists in reality. In Afrikaans there is no analysis of anaphorics as it occurs in language-In-use. In this study the point of departure is that reference is situationally bound, therefore anaphorics is studied within a certain context. Anaphoric relations were analysed in the texts Houd-den-Bek by Andre P Brink and Die swerfjare van Poppie Nongena by Elsa Joubert, as well as in spoken sub-standard Afrikaans as it occurs in conversations held with Griquas, especially from Griqualand West and taped. The frequency of usage of the various types of anaphoria was determined in terms of percentages. In an anaphoric link an antecedent and an anaphor are distinguished which both refer to a matter outside themselves, viz. the referent. Reference is basically a semantic process which can be encoded by means of referential markers. Anaphoric chains are dependent on antecedents through which the referent might be identified and individualized. On the basis of this the viewpoint is held that pronouns cannot act as antecedents seeing that their informational content is too void to cause distinction. Seeing that all antecedents do not identify and individualize the referent equally effectively, it is suggested that a hier= archy of antecedents be established. With respect to reference there is a distinction between referential and co-referential. Anticipatory and retrocipatory anaphorics can be distinguished on the basis of whether the antecedent precedes the anaphor or succeeds it. Retrocipatory anaphorics forms a very small percentage of anaphoric references and point to the fact that new information is provided first. Pronominal anaphorics reveals the highest frequency of usage. Pronouns do not refer without any further ado to preceding nouns. Deixis and the context within which the utterance occurs are of cardinal importance in this respect.
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