The effect of pharmaceutical excipients on the release of indomethacin from chitosan beads
Chitosan has proven through the years as a versatile biomaterial to be used in pharmaceutical applications. Its mucoadhesive properties as well as its ability to manipulate the tight junctions in epithelium membranes have qualified it as an effective drug carrier in controlled drug delivery systems. Microparticles or beads as they are forward called in this study have advantages over conventional drug dosage forms because of a large surface to volume ratio and have the ability to target a specific site for drug release. Indomethacin is an anti-inflammatory drug that causes gastrointestinal side effects in conventional immediate-release dosage forms. The goal is to manipulate the drug delivery vehicle to target the intestines/colon as the site for drug delivery and to minimize this side effect. Thus chitosan beads have been chosen as a drug delivery system for indomethacin in this study. Chitosan beads have been prepared through the ionotropic gelation method using tripolyphophate (TPP) as a cross-linking agent. To prepare the most effective bead to encapsulate indomethacin different formulation and system variables (pH of the TPP solution, the concentration of the TPP solution as well as the indomethacin concentration) have been evaluated according to the following parameters: morphology, drug loading capacity and swelling capability. The ideal pH of the TPP solution was determined at 8.7 and the most effective TPP and indomethacin concentration were 5% w/v and 4% w/v respectively. The chitosan concentration was kept at 3% w/v throughout the study. These concentrations were used to examine the effect of pharmaceutical excipients on the indomethacin release from chitosan beads. The effect of the different excipients namely, ExplotabⒽ(0.25% w/v), Ac-Di-SolⓀ (0.5% w/v) and Vitamin C (0.25% w/v), on the morphology, drug loading capacity, swelling capability as well as the drug release of indomethacin chitosan beads (ICB's) were also studied. The excipients were used in the individually above mentioned concentrations and in combination with each other in the same concentrations. These formulations were used in dissolution studies over a period of 6 hours in PBS pH 7.4 solutions. The indomethacin release rate increased when an excipient was added to the formulation and it dramatically increased when the excipients were added in their various combinations, compared to the formulation that did not contain excipients.
- ETD@PUK