'n Model vir die ontwikkeling van die selfgereguleerde leervaardighede van afstandsleerders
Geduld, Bernadette Winefrede
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The aim of this research was to analyse the self-regulated learning skills of BEd Honours opendistance learners and to develop a model to improve these skills. In order to achieve this aim, a literature study was undertaken to a) describe learning according to behaviourist, socio-cognitive, information processing, constructivist and adult learning theories; b) describe self-regulated learning from the behaviourist, phenomenological, Vygotskian, cognitive constructivist and socio-cognitive theories, focusing on the latter approach; and c) describe distance learning and the demands thereof on distance learners, with emphasis on self-regulation. From the literature review it is evident that effective learning is defined from the researcher's orientation towards learning and the nature of learning within a specific context. Various learning theories emphasise different aspects of learning and present different implications for programme design, the role of teachers, learning methods and assessment. Literature also indicates a positive relationship between self-regulated learning and academic achievement. At the same time literature indicates that distance learners must be able to learn in a selfregulated manner and therefore possess all self-regulated qualities. The research population comprised BEd Honours opendistance learners of Northwest Univerisity and flexi learners of the Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University who wrote exams in the Learning perspectives module. The target group comprised the total number of learners who attended contact sessions and vacation schools in that module and completed questionnaires during 2010 (n=264). A multi-method design with a combination of quantitative and qualitative research was applied to better understand the research problem. Qualitative data was gathered via four questionnairs after which supplementary qualitative data was gathered in the form of semistructured interviews. An ex post facto quantitative approach was used and data statistically analysed by means of a) factor analysis, b) multiple regression analysis and c) step by step regression analysis and effect sizes. Qualitative data was analysed with the assistance of ATLAS.ti.6.0 – a computer assisted system. Results of the research indicate that participants do not meet all the requirements for effective distance learning. Mastering of learning outcomes is to a great extent dependant on assistance from teachers and peers. They don't possess information technological skills and cannot learn effectively if not in their mother tongue. In contrast to existing literature, quantitative and qualitative results indicate that there is limited relation between the self-regulated learning skills and academic achievement of distance learners. Participants seldom use self-regulated learning skills as relevant during the pre-thinking phase and more during the volitional control and self-reaction phases. A model was developed for the improvement of self-regulated learning skills of open distance learners, including the development of academic language skills and information technological skills. Adjustments to study materials, teaching strategies and feedback are some of the important aspects of the model.
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