Positive organisation : the role of leader behaviour in employee engagement and retention
Organisations are constantly undergoing major changes. These changes can have negative consequences on organisational functioning and employee well-being. It is therefore vital for organisations to focus on the elements of a healthy organisation so that a positive organisation can be built and the negative consequences avoided. A healthy organisation pays attention to six intenelated dimensions namely; organisational attributes, organizational climate, job design, job future, psychological work adjustment and negative outcomes (like that of turnover, absenteeism, alcohol and substance abuse, self-reported health, and psychological health). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between leader empowering behaviour, role clarity, psychological empowerment, work engagement and intention to leave. A business unit consisting of managers, specialists, supervisors and administrative staff participated in this research. A cross-sectional design was used to attain the research objectives. The Leader Empowering Behaviour Questionnaire (LEBQ), the Measures of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Questionnaire (MRCAQ), Measuring Empowerment Questionnaire (MEQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (U\VES), and Intention to Leave Scale (ILS) were administered for the study. The statistical analysis was carried out by utilising the SPSS program. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a three factor structure for LEBQ, a two factor structure for MRCAQ, a four factor structure for MEQ, a three factor structure for UWES and since ILS only consists of two items a factor analysis was not necessary. All the scales showed acceptable reliabilities. The results showed that leader empowering behaviour, role clarity and psychological empowerment predict engagement. Moderation effects showed that role clarity interacted with competence and meaning to affect employees' dedication, and role clarity interacted with the developing of employees (as a facet of leader empowering behaviour) to affect absorption. Finally, a regression analysis showed that work engagement predicts employees intention to leave. Once conclusions for the study were drawn, recommendations for the organisation as well as for future research were made.