The effect of pharmaceutical excipients on rifampicin release from chitosan beads
Mohlala, Mangaabane Gorden
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Controlled release systems aim at achieving a predictable and reproducible drug release over a desired time period. These systems allow reduced dosing frequency, constant drug levels in the blood, increased patient compliance and decreased adverse effects. In a recent study, Chitosan beads, containing N-trimethyl Chitosan chloride, have shown a potential in the delivery of rifampicin. However, because of inadequate amounts of rifampicin released over 24 hours, incorporation of other pharmaceutical excipients to increase the swelling behaviour of the beads to improve drug release, was considered in this study. Chitosan beads were prepared through ionotropic gelation with tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a crosslinking agent. To increase the porosity if the Chitosan beads Explotab®, Ac-Di-Sol® and vitamin C were added individually to Chitosan solutions at concentrations of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 % w/v before adding the mixture to the TPP solution. Swelling and morphology studies were used in the evaluation of the different formulations. The swelling and morphology results were then used to select a set of combination and concentrations of two excipients sand then prepare and characterise beads containing two combinations. The combination formulations and formulations containing single excipients were then loaded with rifampicin. Pure chitosan beads exhibited a higher drug loading capacity (67.49 %) compared to the lowest loading capacity of 41.61 % exhibited by chitosan beads containing a combination of Explotab®, Ac-Di-Sol®.For all the other formulations the drug loading capacity ranged within 48 and 63 %. These formulations were used for dissolution studies over a period of 6 hours at pH 5.60 and 7.40. The dissolution results showed that no chitosan has dissolved at both pH values. A significant amount of rifampicin was, however, released from the beads, especially at pH 7.40. chitosan beads containing vitamin C also exhibited high rifampicin release (48.34 ± 1.00) %) at pH 5.60 compared to the other formulations and this makes vitamin C a potential excipient for enhanced drug release over a wide pH range (both acidic and alkalinic). However, further studies are necessary to optimise the preparation method to minimise drug loss during loading and to improve the drug loading capacity of the beads.
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