Die onderlinge verband tussen fisieke aktiwiteit, obesiteit en arteriële meegewendheid by 19-56-jarige vroue : POWIRS II-studie
Several research studies indicate the increasing problem obesity has become over the past few decades (Andersen 1999:41; Fox, 1999:56-60; Kuczmarshi et al., 1994:205-212). Obesity, after cigarette smoke, is the leading cause of death in the USA and a combination of diet factors and physical inactivity (two primary contributors of obesity) leads to an average of 300,000 deaths per year (McGinnis & Foege, 1993:2207-2212). Previously little information was available on the effect of obesity on the peripheral vascularization, and even less about the effect of obesity on arterial compliance (Raison et al., 1998:299-303). Research indicated a decrease in arterial compliance with an increase in body weight (Kumaran et al., 2002:7; Sutton-Tyrrell et al., 2001:431; Tounian et al., 2001:1400-1404; Stepniakowski & Egan, 1995:R567) however, contradictory research where no association between obesity and arterial compliance was indicated, has also been found (Singhal et al., 2002:1920; Mangoni et al., 1995:986). Mackey et al. (2002:16) also found that an increased aortic stiffness is positively associated with lowered physical activity levels. A lifestyle consisting of moderate physical activity, has a positive effect on the health, lowering of chronic illness risks, the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and the improvement of quality of lie in overweight and obese patients (Adams et al., 2003542; Ferreira et al., 2003:1670-1678; Macera, 2003:123; Mclnnis, 200396; Kolden et al., 2002:447). Moderate aerobic exercise is also seen as a potential non-pharmaceutical therapeutic method to increase age associated decrease in arterial compliance in young, middle aged and older adults (Gates et al., 2003:2213; Havlik et al., 2003:156; Seals, 2003:68; Moreau et al., 2003:865; Joyner, 2000:1214; Cameron et al., 1999:653). The objective of this study was firstly to determine the correlation between obesity and vascular function in Caucasian women between the ages 19 and 56 and to determine which marker of obesity is the best predictor of a weakened vascular function (see article one). The second objective was to determine the correlation between physical activity, obesity and arterial compliance in Caucasian women between the ages 19 and 56 years (see article 2). A total of 115 Caucasian women were recruited to participate in this study. Anthropometric measurements and a comprehensive body composition profile was taken using the BOD POD. The Finometer apparatus was used to measure the arterial compliance and the sphygmomanometer to measure the subjects blood pressure. The subjects completed the Yale Physical Activity Survey questionnaire to determine their physical activity index. This study seems to indicate a positive relationship between arterial compliance and obesity which could be explained by the influence blood volume had in determining arterial compliance. A negative correlation was found between obesity and blood pressure where an increase in obesity caused an increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A positive correlation was found between physical activity and obesity. The higher the activity levels were in this study, the less obese the subjects tended to be. No correlation was found between physical activity and arterial compliance. A clear trend, even though no statistically significant differences, was found between physical activity and blood pressure. The more active the subjects were, the lower their blood pressure tended to be.
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