Double product and end–organ damage in African and Caucasian men : the SABPA study
Schultz, Andreas Josias
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Motivation: Recently, with urbanisation becoming an increasing trend, the African population have been introduced to the westernised lifestyle. This contributed to severe health implications and a rapid increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the African population. In South Africa and other sub–Saharan African countries, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing rapidly. The African population is thus regarded as a high risk group, and we deem it necessary and important to investigate additional possible cardiovascular risk markers in the attempt to improve the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases and the treatment thereof. We investigate double product as a possible cardiovascular risk marker in African and Caucasian men from South Africa. Recent studies have suggested that increased double product values might be an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, investigations on double product and endorgan damage are limited in this population group. The strength of associations between double product and various measurements of end–organ damage, including intima–media thickness, left ventricular hypertrophy and albumin–to–creatinine ratio, are compared with the associations between the more traditional risk factor, systolic blood pressure, and the measurements of end–organ damage. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the usability of double product as a possible cardiovascular risk marker in African and Caucasian men from South Africa. Methodology: The manuscript presented in Chapter 3 made use of the cross–sectional SABPA (Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans) study, where 101 urbanised African and 101 Caucasian male school teachers from the North West Province of South Africa were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken in triplicate using standard methods. The cardiovascular measurements included 24–hour ambulatory blood pressure and electrocardiogram measurements. Double products were calculated as the product of 24–hour, daytime and night–time mean systolic blood pressure and mean heart rate values. The carotid intima–media thickness was also obtained following the prescribed protocols. A registered nurse collected blood samples and the biochemical measurements were performed by independent laboratories, blinded to the subject’s cardiovascular profile. Means and proportions were compared by standard t–tests and the x2 –tests, respectively. The association between markers of end–organ damage and double product were investigated using single, partial and multiple regression analyses. All p–values <= 0.05 were deemed significant. Results and conclusions: Results from this study showed that Africans displayed significantly higher systolic blood pressure values, heart rate values and subsequent double product values compared to the Caucasians. Despite these significant differences, double product only showed borderline significant correlations with the markers of end–organ damage in African men, while no correlations were evident in Caucasian men. In African men, systolic blood pressure displayed stronger and significant correlations with intimamedia thickness, left ventricular hypertrophy, and albumin–to–creatinine ratio than double product. These findings suggest that double product may not be a good marker of increased risk for end–organ damage and subsequent cardiovascular–related mortality.
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