Job demands, job resources, burnout and engagement of employees in the mining industry in South Africa
Van der Walt, Martha Johanna Rieker
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The mining industry has been the bedrock of South African economy for more than a century, making an important contribution to employment opportunities, the gross domestic product and export earnings in the South African economy. Globally the mining industry is faced with a shortage of qualified talent to meet its production needs. Every year there are more people leaving than entering the mining industry to pursue job and career opportunities. The mining industry has to focus a lot on safety and health, training and development programmes, team building initiatives, and the recruitment and retention of affirmative action candidates in order to retain their valued staff. The mining industry also has to achieve production targets while at the same time assure that its employees are safe and happy workers. Therefore happy, productive and motivated employees are an important contributor to the stability and development within the mining industry. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between job demands, job resources, burnout and engagement of employees in the mining industry. The research method consisted of a literature review and an empirical study. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the data. An availability sample (JV=199) from employees in the mining industry was taken. The Job Demands and Resources Scale (JDRS) (was used to measure job demands and job resources), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (was used to measure engagement) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (was used to measure burnout). Descriptive statistics, product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The statistical analysis was carried out with the help of the SPSS programme. The results of this study indicated that job resources, namely organisational support (including the relationship with superiors, role clarity, information, communication, and participation) are positively related to growth opportunities (including variety, opportunities to learn, and autonomy), advancement and social support. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictors of engagement were organisational support, growth opportunities and work-life balance. The best predictors of disengagement were lack of resources, including growth opportunities and social support, and demands of overload and a lack of work-life balance. The predictors of burnout were overload and a lack of advancement opportunities Recommendations for future research are made.
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