Nasal and rectal delivery of insulin with chitosan and N-trimethyl chitosan chloride
Du Plessis, Lissinda H.
Kotzé, Awie F.
Junginger, Hans E.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of TMC, with different degrees of quaternization, to increase insulin absorption in vivo following nasal and rectal administration in rats. Two batches of TMC with different degrees of quaternization (TMC-L, 12.3% quaternized and TMC-H, 61.2% quaternized) and chitosan hydrochloride were administered intranasally (0.25 and 0.5% w/v) and rectally (0.5% w/v) with insulin (4 IU/kg body weight), at a pH of 4.40 and 7.40, in rats. Blood samples were taken over a period of 2 h for measurement of blood glucose levels and plasma insulin levels. Local toxicity evaluation was done by histological examination of the nasal and rectal epithelia. At pH 4.40 all these polymers were able to increase nasal and rectal insulin absorption, compared to the control groups. However, at a pH of 7.40, only TMC-H was able to increase the nasal and rectal absorption of insulin. These results relate to the insolubility of chitosan hydrochloride at neutral pH values, while the charge density of TMC-L is still too low for any significant interaction at pH 7.40. Histological evaluation of the nasal and rectal eptihelia shows no changes in the morphology of the cells after exposure to these polymers. Only slight congestion of the nasal submucosa was observed and all these polymers led to a mild increase in mucus secretion at pH 4.40. Highly quaternized TMC proves to be a potent absorption enhancer in vivo, especially at neutral pH values where chitosan salts are ineffective