Die verband tussen ysterstatus en ontwikkelingskoördinasieversteuring (DCD) by nege- tot twaalfjarige kinders / Rentia Nel
The most common form of nutritional deficiency worldwide is iron deficiency, which is associated with sup optimal early brain development. Literature indicates that children with a poor nutritional status during early development of the brain showed poorer cognitive functioning, deficient growth and muscle function. The first purpose of this study was to determine if iron status plays a role in motor competency. A second purpose was to determine if iron status shows an association with motor competency, behavioural characteristics and scholastic success, while a third purpose was to determine if the consumption of different teas will improve iron intake positively and consequently will improve motor development and behaviour. A test- retest research design was used in a randomised parallel study, with one group of children drinking tea and a control group drinking 'rooibos' tea. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) (Henderson & Sugden, 1992) was used to determine the DCD (Developmental co-ordination disorder) status in the group (N = 76). In this group, 45 children were classified as children with DCD. Blood samples were taken to determine the haemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin saturation levels while a 24hr recall dietary questionnaire was used to determine nutritional intakes. Descriptive statistics, t-testing, effect sizes and analysis of co-variance were used to analyse the data. With regards to the first aim of the study, the results which were analysed by means of t-testing, effect sizes and co-variance of analysis indicated that iron deficiency showed significant relationships with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). When corrected for influences other than haemoglobin on gross motor competency manual dexterity, and especially ball skills, showed significant relationships with iron deficiency. These results demonstrate the importance of proper nutrition on motor and cognitive development. With reference to the second aim of the study the assessment of children with DCD by the teachers with regard to their manual dexterity and behavioural characteristics, indicated poorer manual dexterity and more behavioural problems compared to children without DCD. The children in the DCD group was also divided into a group where the MABC-total showed improvement and their haemoglobin levels increased (n=19). This group was then compared with a group of DCD children of which the MABC total decreased and a decrease in haemoglobin was found (n=6). Although the groups were small, the results indicate that manual dexterity skills and mathematics, reading and writing was poorer in the DCD-children whose iron status decreased. No definite association between the different teas and improvement of motor development and behaviour were indicated by the results. Overall, the conclusion can be made that a relationship between iron status and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) among 9-12 year old children exist. However, it is recommended that more studies of this nature should be done on school age children to substantiate the findings of this study. Intervention studies should also be implemented where the children with depleted iron anaemia status should receive iron supplementation.
- ETD@PUK