Chitosan derived formulations and EmzaloidTM technology for mucosal vaccination against diphtheria : oral efficacy in mice
Van der Westhuizen, Elaine
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Vaccination plays a very important part in daily life. It is essential to get vaccinated at an early age. The conventional parented method used is not always effective and not cost efficient. It requires qualified personnel and sterile conditions for administration of the vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chitosan, N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) and Emzaloid™ particles on the local and systemic immune response of mice after oral vaccination with Diphtheria toxoid (DT). The different formulations used were chitosan microparticles (± 10 µm), chitosan nanoparticles (± 400 nm), TMC microparticles (± 5 µm), Emzaloid microparticles (± 4 µm) and Emzaloid nanoparticles (± 500 nm). All of these formulations proved to be very good delivery systems and can entrap large amounts of the antigen. Balb/c mice were used to determine the local and systemic immune response of these formulations. The mice were vaccinated orally on three consecutive days in week 1 and 3 with 40 Lf DT per week with a total volume of 300 µl. Blood samples were taken from the mice and analysed for a systemic immune response (IgG). The same mice were used to determine the local immune response (IgA). Faeces were collected from each mouse on day 1, 3, 4, 6, 14 and 20 for analysis. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine IgG and IgA titers. It can be concluded that chitosan nanoparticles was the only formulation with a higher response than that of the currently used vaccine. Emzaloid nanoparticles showed no significant difference in response when compared to the currently used vaccine. All the other formulations showed a much smaller response than that of the conventional method of vaccination.
- ETD@PUK