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Mfengu beach labour and Port Elizabeth harbour development.

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dc.contributor.author Inggs, E J
dc.date.accessioned 2012-04-05T09:53:39Z
dc.date.available 2012-04-05T09:53:39Z
dc.date.issued 1987
dc.identifier.citation Inggs, E.J. 1987. Mfengu beach labour and Port Elizabeth harbour development. Contree : Tydskrif vir Suid-Afrikaanse stedelike streekgeskiedenis = Contree : Journal for South African urban and regional history. 21:5-12, Jan. [http://dspace.nwu.ac.za/handle/10394/4968] en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0379-9867
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10394/6408
dc.description.abstract • Opsomming: Die wyse waarop skepe in die hawe van Port Elizabeth op- en afgelaai is, het tussen 1820 en 1870 feitlik onveranderd gebly. Die platboomskuite waarin alle goedere gelaai is, moes deur middel van 'n sleeptoustelsel die berugte branders van Algoabaai tussen die hawe en die ankerplek trotseer. Arbeiders moes op bulle beurt weer die platboomskuite laai en daarmee deur die soms onstuimige see strand toe swoeg. Hierdie soort werk is van die Sesde Grensoorlog (1834-1835) af tot en met die sogenaamde beesdoodmaakepisode van 1857 uitsluitlik deur lede van die Mfengustam verrig. Totdat 'n reeks kaaie tussen 1869 en 1902 gebou is, was daar geen ander metode van strandvervoer nie en kon Mfenguarbeiders gevolglik besondere bedingingsmag uitoefen. Hulle was dan ook verantwoordelik vir die eerste opgetekende staking in Suid-Afrika toe bulle op 9 November 1846 vir hoër lone gestaak het. en_US
dc.description.abstract • Summary: The loading and unloading of ships at Port Elizabeth remained virtually unchanged between 1820 and 1870. Everything was loaded into surfboats which had to negotiate Algoa Bay's notorious breakers. The surfboats were propelled between the roadstead and the shore by means of a system of warps or ropes. The cargoes were manhandled into or out of the beached boats by labourers who, depending on the tide, had to wade through the shallows. This labour was monopolised by members of the Mfengu tribe from after the Sixth Frontier War (1834 - 1835) up until the cattle killing episode of 1857. Because no other method was used until the construction of a system of jetties between 1869 and 1902, the Mfengu beach labourers had considerable powers for negotiating better wage rates. They were subsequently responsible for South Africa's first recorded strike on 9 November 1846 when they struck for higher wages.
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Afdeling vir Navorsing oor Streek- en Sosio-ekonomiese Geskiedenis van die lnstituut vir Geskiedenisnavorsing, RGN / Division for Research into Regional and Socio-economic History, Institute for Historical Research, HSRC en_US
dc.title Mfengu beach labour and Port Elizabeth harbour development. en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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