|dc.description.abstract||Youth in modem society can be seen as a synonym for the term problems. No
longer children, yet not adults, youth are exposed to most of the stressors of
adulthood. Alcohol, drugs and other illegal substances are freely available and
provide youth with the easy way of handling the problems that they face in
The objective of this study was to determine whether an adventure experiential
learning programme had an effect on the self-perception as an emotional
component of youth, as well as the sustainability of the proposed change. The
participants (N=28) were tested before the five-month adventure experiential
learning programme, directly afterwards and a month after the programme.
Participants were from all over South Africa and the training took place at Beyond
Adventure School located in the Alexandria vicinity in the Eastern Cape Province.
There were boys (n=18) and girls (n=10) within the group that included white
(n=26) and other (n=2) race groups.
The effect on self-perception was determined by means of two tests, the Self-perception
Scale (SPS) and the Comprehensive Functioning Inventory: Post-matric
(CFI-post). The tests include the following dimensions: inner insecurity,
guilt feelings, lack of self-worth, anxiety, responsibility for consequences for
others and lack of assertiveness. The data received from the two tests was
processed in conjunction with PASWIN 2000. The SAS System for Windows
Release (SAS Institute lnc.. 1999) was used to determine the effect sizes and
calculate the sustainability of the effect.
The study shows that the adventure experiential learning programme had a
medium effect (d = 0.59) on the self-perception of participants. All the different
dimensions improved after the second testing. Inner insecurity (d = 0.47), lack of
self-worth (d = 0.67) and anxiety (d = 0.53) were the biggest contributors towards
the medium effect. Adventure experiential learning programmes were results oriented
and had a significant effect on the participants. In other words, the effect
was medium-sustainable (d = 0.46). The effect could have been greater if more
time had been available and if more participants had been involved.
Responsibility for consequences (d = 0.90) for others showed the largest
sustainability in the long run.
The presence of change could be related to several factors. One, the participants
were pre-assessed, which helped to plan the programme according to the
identified needs of the participants. Two, the programme had a duration of more
than 20 days, which created a greater and more sustainable effect on the
participants. Three, there was more time for reflection on activities during this
programme to make the participants aware of what they had actually
accomplished. There were also some shortfalls. In future, more participants
should be involved in the programme to create more sustainability. Secondly in
experiential learning programmes provision must be made for diversity. Boys and
girls experience certain aspects differently and the programme should be
planned accordingly. In the third instance, individual attention should be paid to
the dimensions instead of the bigger aspects (i.e. total self-perception) to ensure
a more results-oriented adventure experiential learning programme.||