|dc.description.abstract||The primary objective of this research was to develop a spending model for biltong
hunters in South Africa.
Biltong hunting has developed into a popular recreational activity that provides
economic benefits for South Africa over the past years and is the single biggest
source of income for game farm owners. Biltong hunters spend money on game
hunted, accommodation, fuel, hunting gear, equipment, food and beverages. One
method to help stimulate hunters to increase their spending on a game farm is to
determine and manage the determinants of expenditure which can be managed
within a specific model. A spending model can also assist practitioners and
researchers to determine the contribution of hunting to an area or country, as
spending is the main element to economic impact. Therefore it is important to
determine the variables that form part of such a spending model, also seen in the
light that hunting contributes significantly to the economy of South Africa and the fact
that South Africa has a vast numbers of game and hunting destinations. A spending
model includes socio–demographic, travel behaviour and geographic characteristics
of the object studied. A study of literature revealed that no spending model exists for
Quantitative research was conducted and a probability sampling method was used.
Questionnaires were mailed to the members of the SA Hunters and Game
Conservation Association together with their monthly magazine (SA Hunters/SA
Jagters) during November/December 2007. An interactive questionnaire was loaded
onto the websites of the South African Hunters and Game Conservation Association
(SAHGCA), the Professional Hunters Association of South Africa (PHASA) and the
national Confederation of Hunting Associations of South Africa (CHASA) during the
months of September/October 2007. In total, 676 questionnaires were received back
via e–mail, fax and mail.
The results of this research show that biltong hunting appeals primarily to a niche
market, comprising married Afrikaans males between the ages of 49 and 56 years.
The level of education shows that the majority of hunters have either a degree or a
diploma and are self–employed. Hunting is a social and cultural activity with most
hunters hunting in groups. Hunters go on an average of five hunting trips per annum and spend an average of four days hunting. This analysis will examine the total
spending by biltong hunters as well as these variables. Most of the hunters hunt in
their province of residence as well as adjacent provinces. Therefore the geographic
location of a game farm plays a role in a hunter’s choice of hunting destination as
well as the level of their spending.
The top five game species hunted by South African biltong hunters are springbok,
blesbok, impala, kudu and blue wildebeest. Hunters of these popular species in all
cases originate from Gauteng. The preferred species are mainly hunted in two
provinces, Limpopo (blesbok, impala, kudu & blue wildebeest) and the Northern
Cape Province (springbok).
From a game farmer’s as well as marketing perspective, this research makes an
important contribution. This is the first research of its kind done in South Africa and
this research contributes towards the body of knowledge on the spending behaviour
of biltong hunters in South Africa.
Contribution of this study to the discipline of Tourism Management
The study made the following contribution to the field of hunting research:
? This study is the first to suggest a spending model for biltong hunters in South
? It increases the understanding of the socio–demographic and travel behaviour
attributes of biltong hunters.
? It determines which species generate the greatest income for game farms.
Understanding which species generate the greatest income and are more
popular than others for hunters will enable game farmers to host these
species and, as a result, meet the needs and expectations of hunters, thereby
generating more revenue
? As proof of the above, a first article was published in Acta Academica,
42(3):61–85 under the following title: Socio–demographic profile and travel
behaviour of biltong hunters in South Africa.
? Different methods used on the same data set, impacts on the outcome of
results. For example: Article 1, a regression analysis was conducted using
SPSS 16 (using the whole sample pertaining the nine provinces in South
Africa); Article 2, firstly, a statistical analysis was conducted using SAS
System for windows (SAS) and secondly, a linear regression analysis using the five most important provinces where hunters’ originate from. From the
statistical analysis and sections of data used in this thesis different outcomes
were obtained. With regards to this study the following discrepancies in
results were detected:
? Article 1: Professional and occasional hunters spend more than dedicated
? Article 2: Dedicated hunters spend more.
? Article 1: Married hunters spend more.
? Article 2: Unmarried hunters spend more.
? Article 1: There is a positive correlation with spending and hunters residing in
Gauteng, Free State, North–West and Western Cape.
? Article 2: Hunters residing in Gauteng, North–West and Northern Cape spend