An assessment of the useful plant diversity in homegardens and communal land of Tlhakgameng, North–West
Molebatsi, Lerato Yvonne
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IAS 39 and recorded structured interviews with the respondents. The accounting treatment of commodity derivatives was investigated by utilising nine transaction types which are typically found when producers sell grain to an agribusiness or a processor purchases grain from an agribusiness. The seven case studies were identified by utilising convenience sampling (unrestricted non–probability sampling). A literature review and empirical study were conducted. The findings on the accounting treatment of commodity derivatives were communicated thematically. The main findings were discussed during interviews with representatives of the technical departments of three of the Big Four audit firms in South Africa. A discussion of similar studies performed globally was performed. The recommendations following from this research study include that entities carrying “own use” inventory and applying hedge accounting can elect to apply the base adjustment consistently as part of their accounting policy on the valuation of inventory. Entities holding grain inventory for trading purposes should, based on industry practice, fair value such inventory. Various recommendations regarding the classification of a supply contract with a producer (as defined in a pre–season fixed price contract) depending on whether an entity applies hedge accounting or not, were made. Recommendations regarding the determination of fair value include that, based on industry practice and guidance by IAS 39, the SAFEX–based price should be utilised to fair value derivatives and to fair value inventory held by commodity–broker traders. The fair value movement on the option contracts taken out on behalf of the producer by an agribusiness should be transferred to the relevant producer's loan account. The recommendations concluded with a recommendation that entities should proactively consider and plan the impact of the replacement of IAS 39 on current business practices. Areas for further research could include investigating the accounting treatment of commodity derivatives of the newly issued accounting standards on financial instruments by IASB and the impact of these new standards on the business practices of entities indices were measured, Shannon–Wiener Diversity, Pieolou’s Evenness, Margalef’s Species Richness and Simpson’s Index of diversity. In all the indices homegardens had the highest value in comparison with other land–use types followed by natural areas. Questionnaires were used to gather information regarding indigenous knowledge used by residents to manage their homegardens and to determine the different socio–economic classes in the study area. The majority of the population was still utilizing indigenous knowledge to manage their homegardens. However, there was some disparity whether or whether not indigenous knowledge has been lost. This study confirms that homegardens contribute significantly to household diet and income especially for the people living in rural areas due to the production and diversity of cultivated edible species. This is the case despite a high percentage of ornamentals being cultivated. Although the extent of household dependency on homegardens varies considerably, its contribution is quite significant towards the livelihood of the people because it requires minimal investment and is easily accessible. Homegardens also serve as sites for the conservation of rare, vulnerable, endangered and endemic species.