Die rol van Psalm 110 in Hebreërs
The book of Hebrews presents fascinating material for the study of Scripture on many dimensions. This is especially true when it comes to Hebrew's use of the Old Testament. Hebrews is not only the book that quotes from the Old Testament more than any other book in the New Testament, it also implements and organizes these quotations in a remarkable fashion. These quotations, references and reminiscences are also not made at random but are implemented in an organized structure. Not only does the Hebrew writer use the message of the Old Testament, but he also gives a message in the way that he organizes his quotations. Certain quotations appear right through the book, while they are also quoted in a more concentrated area in specific sections of the book. The quotations also appear to have introductory formulas unique to Hebrews. The specific source of these quotations appears to be the Psalms and the Pentateuch. One such text, which is used in a very high frequency and which has an enormous impact on Hebrews is Psalm 110. The present study makes clear that especially this Psalm is used in an organized and decisive way in the thought pattern of Hebrews. Quotations from, references to and reminiscences on verse 1 and verse 4 appear to form the proverbial "backbone" of Hebrews. It is even possible to indicate a that there is a parallel thought pattern between that of Psalm 110 and the basic thought structure of the "sermon" to the Hebrews. The study shows that Psalm 110 plays even more than a structural role in the book of Hebrews. The exposition of the quoted verses constitutes the central message of the book as a whole. The message is that Jesus is the risen Christ, the King-Priest of our salvation. The way in which Hebrews explains the message of Psalm 110 leads to the conclusion that Hebrews can be viewed as an example of an early-Christian Midrasj on Psalm 110. In accordance with the characteristics of a Midrasj the Hebrew writer makes abundant use of the expository methods of the rabbinical hermeneutics of it's time. In accordance with this method Psalm 110 is explained and applied as a Messianic Psalm. The Hebrew writer makes even a further step than his contemporary Jewish expositors, by applying the Messianic prophecy of the Psalm directly to Jesus Christ. Both Hebrews and the other Jewish expositors did justice to the messianic message of Psalm 110 by adherence to the literary and historical context of the Psalm. Through an exegetical study of Psalm 110, in it's context of the Hebrew Tenach, this is the conclusion to which this study comes. Even in it's original form the Psalm was destined to refer to more than an ordinary earthly king is. It proclaimed the coming of a Priest-King who would finally conquer the enemies and foes of the people of God and who will reign forever. Hebrews makes clear than this became a reality in the work of Jesus Christ, the incarnate Son of God. By studying the way in which Hebrews uses and explains Psalm 110 this study contributes some valuable insights into the hermeneutics of our own day, especially the contemporary hermeneutics on the Messianic Psalms. It shows that present day expositors, in complying with the approach of Hebrews, can rightly maintain that the Messianic Psalms did indeed make reference to the person and work of Jesus Christ and can still be interpreted as such today. The study finally examines the use of Psalm 110 in Hebrews with the aim of determining the hermeneutic principles of the book and comparing them with that of the Jewish exegetes of its time. These principles are then also compared with those being used today and the points of critique against the hermeneutics of Hebrews are evaluated.
- Theology