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“Multinational sport participation replaces apartheid sport in South Africa - 1967 - 1978”: the role of BJ Vorster and PGJ Koornhof.

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dc.contributor.author Klee, Juan
dc.date.accessioned 2012-08-24T07:28:29Z
dc.date.available 2012-08-24T07:28:29Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.identifier.citation Klee, J. 2012. “Multinational sport participation replaces apartheid sport in South Africa - 1967 - 1978”: the role of BJ Vorster and PGJ Koornhof. New Contree : A journal of Historical and Human Sciences for Southern Africa. 64:155-170, Jul. [http://dspace.nwu.ac.za/handle/10394/4969] en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0379-9867
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10394/7022
dc.description.abstract The sport declarations of TE Dönges as Minister of Internal Affairs in June 1956 and those of HF Verwoerd as Prime Minister in 1965 were aimed at strengthening apartheid sport participation in South Africa. These declarations were in reaction to increased international and local pressure on the National Party (NP) to allow integrated sport participation. However, they contributed to increased political and economic isolation as well as isolation on the sports grounds. In reaction to this increasing isolation BJ Vorster and P Koornhof formulated an evolutionary sport policy since 1967 in an effort to counteract increased international isolation. These efforts by Vorster and Koornhof have been interpreted by many critics and researchers as being the product of continuous international and local pressures on the NP and its policy of Apartheid. This article, however, argues that although the evolutionary sport policy could be interpreted as cosmetic, tactical and strategic moves, it also demonstrated important small changes in the normal thinking patterns of the NP elite. The policy changes as reflected in the evolutionary sport policy were the result of nuanced changes in the thinking of the NP regarding the policy of apartheid. These changes in thinking were not so much the result of external and local pressures but were merely encouraged by it. These changes in thinking led the way for increased social integration and complemented increased apartheid policy reforms since 1978. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher School for Basic Sciences, Vaal Triangle Campus, North-West University en_US
dc.subject Multinational sport participation en_US
dc.subject Verwoerd en_US
dc.subject Vorster en_US
dc.subject Koornhof en_US
dc.subject Local pressure en_US
dc.subject International pressure en_US
dc.subject Reform en_US
dc.subject Mixed sport en_US
dc.subject Afrikaner en_US
dc.subject Sport organisations en_US
dc.subject Apartheid sport en_US
dc.title “Multinational sport participation replaces apartheid sport in South Africa - 1967 - 1978”: the role of BJ Vorster and PGJ Koornhof. en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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