Monoamine oxidase inhibition by selected anilide derivatives
Bergh, Jacobus J.
Petzer, Jacobus P.
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A series of anilide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. The most potent inhibitors among the derivatives that were initially evaluated were (2E)-N-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-enamide (2c) and (2E)-N-(3-bromophenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-enamide (2d) with IC50 values of 0.53 μM and 0.45 μM, respectively. These derivatives exhibited reversible and selective inhibition of MAO-B with binding affinities 37 fold higher for MAO-B than for MAO-A. Analysis of the possible binding interactions of these inhibitors with active site models of human MAO-A and –B led to the design of phenolic and benzonitrile derivatives of 2c and 2d. Among these were (2E)-N-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide (7c) and (2E)-N-(3-bromophenyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide (7d) which inhibited MAO-B selectively and reversibly with IC50 values of 0.032 μM and 0.026 μM, respectively. These inhibitors were at least 14 fold more potent than 2c and 2d. This study concludes that N,3-diphenylprop-2-enamide is a suitable scaffold for the design of selective MAO-B inhibitors and structural modifications to enhance the binding affinities of the inhibitors for the MAO-B active site include substitution with halogens on the N-phenyl ring and substitution with hydroxyl and nitrile functional groups on the para and meta positions, respectively, of the C3 phenyl ring. Possible binding modes of these structures within the MAO-B active site are proposed with the emphasis on the interactions of the inhibitor halogens and the hydroxyl and nitrile functional groups with active site residues and water molecules.