Volatile trace element behaviour in the Sasol® fixed-bed dry-bottom (FBDB)™ gasifier treating coals of different rank
Bunt, John Reginald
Waanders, Frans Boudewijn
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Trace element simulation and validation of model predictions for the elements Hg, As, Se, Cd and Pb have recently been undertaken for the Sasol® FBDB™ gasification process operating on lump coal. The validation was conducted by interpolating the residual trace elements content remaining behind in the solid coal/char/ash fractions after sequential mining of a quenched commercial-scale gasifier operating on low rank grade C bituminous Highveld coal used for gasification in South Africa. This paper extends the research understanding by comparing the volatile trace element behaviour of these same elements, using the same gasification technology, but operating on North Dakota lignite. The focus will be on the behaviour of the volatile Class III trace elements: Hg, As, Se, Cd and Pb within the Sasol® FBDB™ gasifier as function of coal rank. This study excludes the downstream gas cleaning partitioning and speciation behaviour of these elements. Findings indicate that although the feed concentration and mode of occurrence of these elements differ quite substantially between the two coal types studied, that the volatilization profiles of the elements are indeed quite similar; being within 0.1%–15% lower in the case of the lignite when compared to the bituminous coal. In both cases, Hg was found to be the most volatile and As the least; with the volatility order varying slightly for the metals Se, Cd and Pb for the two coal types. The differences observed in the trace element volatilization rate are supported by the temperature profile which was inferred from the reflectance of vitrinite (RoV) measurements of the dissected fuel bed material. The highly reactive lignite, is successfully gasified at a lower temperature than is the case for bituminous coal using the Sasol® FBDB™ gasification process. Speciation predictions have earlier shown that: H2 Se, CdS, PbS/Pb/PbCl, and AsH3 species possibly exist in the gas phase. In reality, organically-associated trace elements will also be volatilized into the gas phase, but due to a lack of thermodynamic data for the lignite organo-metallic species at this stage only inorganic associations could be modelled.