Properties and use of SO2 for the hybrid sulfur process
Krüger, Andries Johannes.
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Thematic interrelation is an underdeveloped field of inquiry in Lukan studies. The design and elegance of Lukan theology begs for guided investigation into a possible system of organisation that governs history and theology, that is, narrative and theme. Based on the Greimasian Actantial Model, morpho–syntactical structural–critical analysis of Luke and Acts reveals that the covenant concept in its operative aspect of service functions as an organising principle, structuring the narratives and facilitating thematic interrelation. A survey of representative Lukan research consisting of five methodologically determined approaches shows a commonality regarding Lukan purpose. These all share the “plan of God” as a fundamental concept, thus intimating its plausibility as a common organisational principle in the text. This observation encourages further analysis of Lukan narrative and meta–narrative as relevant subject matter. Investigation into the purpose and goals of Ancient Jewish and Ancient Greek literature suggests that the concepts of piety/holiness and justness combined with a notion of divine order and expectation demonstrates organisational capacity. Under the terms and conditions of the Old Covenant three non–exclusive themes/concepts hold organisational functionality and ability to facilitate thematic interrelation: Exodus typology, the covenant concept and the eschaton idea. Exodus typology connects narrative with theme, developing Israel’s story. The covenant idea frames stories using parallelism and gives the meta–story progression. The eschaton idea presents the Day of YHWH as an organisational principle guiding the story of judgment to restoration. It is observed that the covenant concept is the most prevalent of these themes/ideas. Assuming the conceptual unity of Luke and Acts and adopting a morpho–syntactical structuralist approach, it was observed that the covenant concept in its operative aspect of service occurred as Helper at ten places, determining the development and structure of the meta–narrative. According to the Greimasian Actantial Model, Israel failed to fulfil its covenant–based mandate to serve God and shine God’s light of mercy to the nations. Jesus, Israel’s new Helper, becomes the Subject and by his covenant–based ministry, characterised as the greatest service, resolves the problem that prevents Israel from carrying out its divine mandate and sets the stage for its fulfilment. In Jesus Israel is given new leaders, an ethical platform of discipleship and the Holy Spirit. The apostle Paul as the epitomised and exemplary witness and servant of Jesus fulfils what Israel could not. He is vindicated in righteousness and shares in the Isaianic ministry of Jesus, to bear witness to leaders and to shine God’s light to the nations. Paul is unhindered in this ministry. Additionally, in thematic–critical terms, the key placement of the covenant concept in its operative aspect of service at plot–defining junctures features its catalytic dynamic as a “template” concept advancing the re–conceptualising of themes and providing a platform for meaningful relation. The evidence thus suggests that the covenant concept in its operative aspect structures the conjoined narratives of Luke and Acts. It also provides a basis for relation between the divine and humans in the context of the history of God’s salvation, linking history and theology, and makes possible a discernible means to thematic interrelation. The SO2 electrolysis was performed by supplying the anode of the cell with SO2 gas, while the water was fed to the cathode using graphite plates as flow fields. Initial experimental work was done at ambient pressures on the anode (SO2 gas–fed) and cathode (water–fed) after which the water pressure was increased from ambient to 1 bar. Various parameters were evaluated for SO2 electrolysis at ambient conditions, including operating temperature, membrane thickness and catalyst loading. The operating temperature was increased from 50oC to 80oC which resulted in a significant voltage improvement from 0.78V to 0.64V at 300mA/cm2. Operating the cell with thinner membranes (86 vs 170um) also resulted in an improved overall cell performance, while the catalyst loading (1 vs 0.5mgPt/cm2) had a negligible effect on the operating voltage. SEM images and EDX analysis were performed on the best performing MEA (N1135) which showed that no degradation of the MEA had occurred.
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