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Die bepalers van die gees en rigting van die opvoedende skoolonderwys / deur Paul Jacobus Snyman

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dc.contributor.author Snyman, Paul Jacobus
dc.date.accessioned 2012-12-03T12:41:36Z
dc.date.available 2012-12-03T12:41:36Z
dc.date.issued 1985
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10394/7812
dc.description Proefskrif (DEd)--PU vir CHO, 1985
dc.description.abstract 1. The problem that was studied From educational practice it emerges that various societal bonds and societal factors influence the spirit and the direction of education at school. In educational practice it also happens that these different determining factors with regard to the spirit and the direction of education come into conflict with each other because each of these is in the habit of laying claim to the right of decisively influencing the direction and the spirit of school education. The problem facing one in the study can thus be expressed as follows: Which societal relationships and societal factors should have the right to 'prescribe' what the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching offered by the school should be? In the event of more than one institution having such a say, what is the competency of each institution? 2. Research hypothesis The following hypotheses were tested by means of this research. Main hypothesis (Mh) Within the framework of the compulsory Christian education for Whites in the state schools of the RSA there are various determiners of the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching provided in the classrooms. Subsidiary hypothesis 1 (Sh 1) The state is a determiner of the schools’ education and teaching, and then specifically as regards the financing and the administration thereof the maintenance and the establishment of standards, and the rights of everyone involved in the educational and teaching programme of the school. Subsidiary hypothesis 2 (Sh 2) Subsidiary hypothesis 2 (Sh 2) The church is a determiner of the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching provided at the school in the sense that the church indirectly exerts influence on the spirit and the direction of the school through the parents of the pupils and the teachers who are members of the church. Subsidiary hypothesis 3 (Sh 3) The parental home is a determiner of the education of the school in terms of the spirit and the direction of the education. Subsidiary hypothesis 4 (Sh 4) The school as an institution is also in itself a determiner of the education and teaching offered there, and by implication also of the direction and the spirit of the education offered. The competency area of the school is the field of method, of discipline, learning contents and of internal organization. Subsidiary hypothesis 5 (Sh 5) The teacher is, both in his individual and organized capacity, a determiner of education at school, and by implication also of the spirit and the direction thereof. The competency area of the teacher is the same as that of the school as an institution. Subsidiary hypothesis 6 (Sh 6) The broad community, with its diverse societal factors, is a determiner of the spirit and the direction of school education and teaching in the sense that it indirectly exerts an influence on it. 3. The method of study The method of study used is the hypothesis-verifying inductive method. At the start of the investigation a main hypothesis and a number of subsidiary research hypotheses were proposed. In the course of the study the hypotheses were then evaluated and found to be either acceptable or unacceptable. Use was also made of reflection about principle in the light of Scripture, critical evaluation, historical investigation, evaluation and a survey of literature. Concepts were defined, and use was made of deduction and description. In chapter 2 it was first determined, on the basis of principle, what the authority of the state is with regard to the spirit and direction of the education and teaching offered at school. Then it was historically determined how this power or competence has, in the course of centuries, been either maintained or ignored. In chapters 3 and 4 the same modus operandi was used with regard to the church and the parental home. In chapter 5 it was determined on the basis of/principle what the power of the school as institution is with regard to the spirit and the direction of education and teaching at school. In chapter 6 the same modus operandi was used with regard to the teacher in his individual and organised capacity as was used for the school in chapter 5. In chapter 7 the power of authority of the diverse societal factors with regard to the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching at school was determined by means of a survey of literature. In chapter 8 the final findings were reached, conclusions were drawn and some recommendations made. 4. Findings/results 4.1 With regard to the subsidiary research hypotheses 4.1.1 The role of the state in the determination of the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching of the school (Sh 1) Because God did not give the child to the state, the state is not primarily responsible for the child. The determination of the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching at the school is therefore not the task of the state. The state received the power of the sword from God, and therefore the state has to see to the upholding of justice for al' parties involved in the education and teaching of the child. The state also has to see to it that morally harmful practices are prevented from entering the school, and because the state is in control of the treasury (to which the parents also contribute through paying taxes) it must also bear the largest part of the financial burden of the school. In the course of history the state has mostly dominated the spirit and the direction of education and teaching in the school in the parts of the Western world – from the Greeks and the Romans to the USA in modern times. It was only among the Jewish nation and during the Middle Ages that the state did not dominate the spirit and the direction of the education at school. 4.1.2 The role of the church in the determination of the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching at school (Sh 2) The child was not given by God to the church and for that reason the church is not empowered to determine the spirit and the direction of education and teaching at school level. Vet the church does have an interest in the education and teaching of its baptismal members at school. The church, however, can only indirectly determine the spirit and the direction of education and teaching at school through the parents (and teachers) who are members of the church. The church continually has to encourage the parents to keep to the baptismal promise. Normally the church does not have the task of determining the spirit and the direction of education at school level. In the course of history, in earlier times when society was still very much indifferentiated, the church did, in conjunction with the state, exert influence on the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching of the school. In the course of the Middle Ages the church totally dominated and controlled the school and therefore a1so the spirit and the direction of education, but in modern times the church has increasingly moved into the background so that today it has little or no say in the school apart from its indirect influence. 4.1.3 The role of the parental home in the determination of the spirit and direction of the education and teaching of the school (Sh 3) God gave the child to the parents. The parent and the child are bound biotically with a blood bond and the parents make the baptismal promise. The parent is therefore primarily responsible for the determination of the spirit and the direction of the child1s education and teaching at school. The parent therefore has to have the right to appoint teachers who will maintain the spirit and the direction in the school as the parent would prefer to have it. In the history of education the parent has really never come into his own with regard to the determination of the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching offered at the school. The parent was only involved among the Jews and the early Christians. In modern times there are al so some countries, such as for example the Netherlands and England, where ways have been found to give justice to the rights of the parent. In the Netherlands this is possible through the so-called 'Special schools" and in England through the II vo1untary schools". 4.1.4 The role of the school as an institution in the determination of the spirit and the direction of education and teaching at school (Sh 4) The school is not the origin of the child, but came into being as an aid to the parent with regard to the academic instruction of the child and his intellectual formation. The teacher does not release the parent from his responsibilities. The school is not a mere extension of the parental home, but is an independent entity with regard to internal organization, discipline, method, examination and syllabi. The parents have to respect this independence of the school. No school can be neutral as regards the spirit and the direction of education. For that reason the school should make known, through a credo or a confession, the spirit and the direction of the education offered at that particular school. Because the school has come as an aid to the parent, the school is, fundamentally, not empowered to determine the spirit and the direction of the education offered- there. In practice, however, it would seem as if the school's influence on the spirit and the direction of education is greater/more than it should be according to the principle. The child is, every day and then for many hours, directly under the influence of the school, and this causes the school to have a far larger influence on the spirit and direction of the education and teaching of the school than is generally assumed. 4.1.5 The role of the teacher as an individual and in organized capacity as a determiner of the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching of the school (Sh 5) God did not give the child to the teacher, and the teacher also did not make the baptismal promise. For that reason the teacher has to make the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching at the particular school adjust to the world view of the parents whose children attend the school. Because of the great influence of the teacher on the child it would seem as if in the practice of education he is the most significant determiner of the spirit and the direction of the school’s education and teaching. There should therefore be close co-operation between parents and teachers. 4.1.6 The role of diverse societal factors in the determination of the spirit and direction of the education and teaching of the school (Sh 6) Apart from the state, the church, the parental home, the school and teachers there is a variety of factors in society which can influence the spirit and direction of the school, such as the mass media, ideologies, the spirit of the times, recreation, art and so forth. These factors indirectly have an influence on the spirit and the direction of the school's education and teaching. It is, however, difficult to determine the extent of this influence precisely, because of the complexity of society and the complexity of societal relationships. 4.2 With regard to the main hypothesis (MH) On the basis of acceptance of the above subsidiary hypotheses the main hypothesis could be accepted. The crucial finding of the research is therefore that within the framework of compulsory Christian education for Whites in state schools in the Republic of South Africa there are different determiners of the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching offered in the classrooms. The various determiners of the spirit and the direction of education and teaching in school of ten come into confrontation because these different determiners do not confine themselves to their own fundamental field and area of competence, and each claims for itself the right to determine the spirit and the direction of the school’s education and teaching. 4.3 General findings 4.3.1 Differentiation in educational practice on the basis of religion and World view From the investigation it emerged that if the principle of differentiation on the basis of religion and world view should be implemented in education, the various societal relations and factors need not come into conflict with each other, because then each determiner of the spirit and the direction of the school is education and teaching will only act within the confines of his power (determined on the basis of principle), and will not transgress in the area of another determiner. 4.3.2 Conclusions regarding the relationship between the various determiners of the spirit and direction of education and teaching in schools. The following statements could be postulated on the basis of fundamental points of view as worked out in this study: * As the natural origin of the child the parent{s) should determine the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching which the child should receive at school, and the parents should have the means to maintain and uphold their say about the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching at the school unabated. * In view of the fact that the state disposes of the treasury, it should assume responsibility for the greater part of the financial burden of the school, help to handle the administrative side of the school and to see to a high standard of teaching. The state is also responsible for seeing to it that the rights of all parties in the educational set-up are upheld. * The church has a strong interest in the spirit and direction of the education and teaching at school, but is not normally responsible for the determination of these. The church can only indirectly have an influence through the parents (and teachers) who are members of the church. * The school as an institution offers a professional service and in that respect its autonomous. Seeing that no school can be neutral with regard to the spirit and the direction of the education and teaching of the school, each school should have a credo or a confession so that the outside world can see what the spirit and the direction of the school with regard to its education and teaching are. * The teacher/teaching corps is the “most important" component in public school teaching. His influence in the practice of teaching is very large and is probably mostly underestimated. It is more important to select teachers correctly and to train them properly than to agitate for laws which should ensure the continuation of Christian education. * It is not possible to keep the child away from all kinds of “alien" societal influences, but it is more important to equip him so that he can confront these influences. * There are many diverse societal factors which influence the spirit and the direction of the school IS education and teaching. The various institutions should respect each other's areas of competence and power, for if this does not happen it can do grave damage to the education and teaching offered at school. * The key to a harmonious system of educational control is to be found in a system of differentiation based on religion and world view in education. 5. Some recommendations which were made on the basis of this research Project * If parents want to have a say in the spirit and direction of the education and teaching offered at the school, they will have to negotiate on an organized basis. Increasingly more and better channels will have to be created through which the parents can communicate with the other "determiners" and put their demands. * The parents and the teachers should regard each other as partners with regard to the education and teaching of the child. * The teacher should be less of an official and more of an educator and teacher. This means that he should receive fewer instructions and prescriptions from higher authorities - and should have more freedom to use his own initiative with regard to his own area of competence. * The state should leave the initiative for the establishment of schools in the hands of the parents, but the state should still bear the larger part of the financial burden of education. * The school should be freed from the state to the extent that it (the school) can not be used for political purposes. * The church should maintain a warm interest in the school and should continually encourage its members to keep their baptismal promise. * Each school should have a credo or a confession in which it can announce to the outside world what spirit or direction the education and teaching offered at the school will take. * The selection and the training of Christian teachers should receive more attention. * A system of differentiation based on the principle of religion and world view in education should be introduced into the South African system of education as soon as possible. en_US
dc.language.iso other en_US
dc.publisher Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education
dc.title Die bepalers van die gees en rigting van die opvoedende skoolonderwys / deur Paul Jacobus Snyman en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.description.thesistype Doctoral en_US


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